The Kalergi Plan: Zionist World Order
Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Count Coudenhove-Kalergi, a Zionist racist.
Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Count Coudenhove-Kalergi, was born in Tokyo on November 16th, 1894. He died on July 27th, 1972 in Schruns, Vorarlberg, Austria. Kalergi was an Austrian Japanese politician and activist of geopolitics. In 1923 he published his manifesto “Pan Europe” which states that an International Pan-European Union was founded to bring about new world order, where Jews as master race would rule over all other inferior people. The Pan-European Movement started, the precursor of Europe of Maastricht, and of the European Union.
Kalergi called the concept of a “Pan Europe” or “Pan Europe-ism” the meaning of “Unification of all nations of Europe under one single state” with the intention that continental Europe should be changed by the integration of different foreign races and cultures. In this way a cosmopolitan Europe would be created, multi-cultural, multi-raced, eventually all becoming mestizos, or a mixed people, all with low intellect, easy to be ruled over by Jewish “supremacy.”
The Kalergi Plan is currently being implemented throughout Europe with the intention of bringing about the extinction of the Caucasian race. The perpetrators of this plan are world-wide Zionist Jews. Areas where this plan it currently being carried out is Germany, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Belgium, Switzerland, and other Caucasian nations. This plan is being implemented through the mass immigration of Muslims from countries such as Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, and other regions of the middle-east.
The rational of this plan is that there is to be one ruler of all people, a Jewish master race, dominating the mestizos. Mestizos is a term used to describe persons of mixed racial ancestry, especially people of mixed European Caucasian, with Negroes, Asians and middle-eastern. According to this plan, Jews are to remain “free of pollution” of the mestizos.
Those behind the Kalergi Plan included Edvard Benes, Max Warburg, Ignaz Seipel, Karl Renner, Edouard Herriot, Noel Baker, Winston Churchill, and Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann, Konrad Adenauer, John Foster Dulles, Robert Schuman, Paul Henry Spaak, Helmut Kohl, and Jean-Claude Juncker. The idea behind the extinction of Caucasians is that it would be easy to carry out because Zionists believe that people of mixed races are inferior intellectually, and easy to manage as such.
The flag of the Pan-European Movement of 1923.
The Kalergi Plan is a genocide project which was created by politician and mestizo, Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove Kalergi. Kalergi was half Japanese. The Pan European Movement, the predecessor of the European Union was designed in part to destroy Europe, and to exterminate the Caucasian race. To implement this plan multi cultural, and mass immigration of Negroes, Asian, mestizo people, Latin American people, natives from America and Muslims should be fostered with the aim to mix all the races creating, and breeding a passive mestizo race. The expectation of this plan is to be tame, people who are calculable and manipulable, as they would lack character, with lack intelligence. According to Zionists that support this plan, having a world of mestizos would make it possible to execute a Jewish elite aristocracy that would rule forever. Zionists believe that once this plan was complete it would be impossible for these newly created mestizos to organize rebellions, and would not be aware that they are being dominated, due to their lack of intelligence.
Realization of Kalergi Plan: The invasion of immigrants to Europe
Beginning in 2015, the invasion of immigrants was deliberately established through globalization initiatives under the guise of humanitarian relief. As is apparent, the current governments in Europe have no intention of stopping this invasion, provoked by crisis after crisis created by wars, and the destruction of infrastructure, orchestrated by Zionist Jews, their supporters, and Jewish bankers. The military aspect of this campaign of genocide is carried out by U.S. through politicians, not loyal to America, but to Israel. The Kalergi Plan is aimed at all countries with a Caucasian population; it does not affect Asian, or African countries where no invasion of immigrants is occurring. This invasion is camouflaged with words like progress, mercy, humanism, fraternity, social justice, equality, etc. But principally it’s a criminal and brutal plan to destroy European culture.
The core of the plan: Jewish master race dominating the mestizos
Kalergi’s first manifests, written between 1923 and 1925, his stressed that Jews would take over power, first in Europe, and then the rest of the world. The plan is to be implemented so Jews would have for themselves, a utopian society as Jews would be the master race. Ironically, Kalergi’s own father was anti-Semitic, writing extensively on the topic.
Under the Kalergi Plan, all nations would be destroyed through rapid succession of mass migration, as well as cleansing Europe by “ethnic” separatist movements like Catalonian separatism or like Basque separatism. Kalergi believed that Europe should be formed in a way that Jews could dominate it. This domination includes what we see today. The control of the world’s media, publications, education, courts, legislation, and finance industry. The precondition for this plan would be under the pretension to convert the ethnic homogeneous population into mixed groups with Caucasian, Negroes and Asian people. These mestizos should have characteristics traits such as cruelty, infidelity and other characteristics, according to Kalergi. These mestizo features should be created deliberately, artificially, to bring about an absolutely Jewish supremacy. Under Kalergi’s Plan, he too would be inferior to the Jews as he himself is a mestizo.
Kalergi: An Austrian Japanese mestizo himself
Kalergi was the son of a count and diplomat Heinrich Coudenhove Kalergi, an anti-Semite, and author if the book “Idiosyncresis of Anti-Semitism.” Kalergi was Austrian Hungarian and Japanese. His mother, Mitsu Aoyama, was Japanese. At Vienna University Kalergi obtained his doctor’s diploma in philosophy and worked as a journalist, and editor at the newspaper “Pan Europe.” Kalergi is recognized as the founder of the movement of a Unified Europe, which calls for the extermination of all Caucasian people.
After the publication of the manifesto in 1923, Kalergi published, “Fight for Pan-Europe” (1925-1928), in three volumes. His ideas influenced Aristide Briand and Briand’s speech of September 8th, 1929 in the Nation’s Society. Then after the annexation of Austria in 1938 Kalergi took his fight to France and in 1940 to America. Kalergi remained in the U.S., until 1945, where he gave seminars at New York University. After WWII, he would return to France. In 1944 he published his work “Crusade for Pan-Europe.” After his return to France he founded the European Parliamentarian Union. At the congress of this union in 1947, from September 8th-12th, he defended the idea of a foundation of a large global market with a stable single currency. This currency was to be the means to develop a new way to bring Europe to the place in which it would become one nation.
In 1950 Kalergi was the first person awarded with the “Charlemagne Prise”, given to persons who “contribute to the idea of a unified and peaceful Europe.“
Kalergi: The Plan
By 1923 Kalergi was the head of a group of Free Masons. He proclaimed that Europe would be dominated by a “Jewish aristocrat race“, and for this to occur Europeans had to be crossbred with Negroes, Asians and people from the middle-east. Kalergi believed to obtain this mixed race, crossbreeding was to be done in the same manner animals are crossbred. From these “crossbreeds” Kalergi believed a lower human race would evolve which would have much lower intellect, and be more easily governed by Zionist Jews, as world rulers.
From the beginning Kalergi’s first followers were the Czech politicians Tomas Masaryk and Edvard Benes. The banker Max Warburg, a Zionist Jew gave Kalergi 60,000 German Marks so the project could begin. The Austrian chancellor Ignaz Seipel and later the Austrian President Karl Renner began to lead this “Pan-European Movement.” Kalergi indicated that noble French politicians would support his movement to suppress a German revenge movement. French President Edouard Herriot, and British leaders, including Winston Churchill as well as the editor-in-chief of London Times, Noel Baker began to push for this movement to become a reality.
By 1926 Kalergi was in America convincing American politicians of his plan. While in the U.S. Kalergi obtained two new followers, French foreign minister Aristide Briand, and German chancellor Stresemann. In the same year Edvard Benes who had already organized the genocide of 300,000 Germans from Sudetenland became a convert of Kalergi. Many highly influential politicians of the 20thcentury were in this group, among them Konrad Adenauer, the Spanish former Minister of Justice Rios and John Foster Dulles. Kalergi received great attention and aid from the New York Times, and New York Herald Tribune, both Zionist owned and controlled media that supported the genocide of Caucasian people. The New York Times was instrumental in publicizing Jewish lore that six million Jews were first murdered by the Russians, during WWI, and thereafter by Germany during WWII.
Kalergi submitted his plans to U.S. Congress. His contempt for the principle of popular governments was stated in a phrase in 1966 when he was remembering his post-war period activities: “The following five years of the Pan-European movement did concentrate principally only to this subject; Parliaments were mobilized so the governments were strengthened for the creation of Pan-Europe.” With the help of Robert Schuman, the French Foreign Minister with a Jewish ancestry Kalergi succeeded in robbing the German population of its reign over German steel production, iron production and coal production. All this production was put in charge of a supra national control. Depasperi, a traitor with the self-determination of Tiroleans in South Tirol, and Paul Henry Spaak, the Belgium Socialist leader pretended to create peace between Germans and Frenchmen, not regarding the heirs of Clemenceau who had formulated the genocide plan of Versailles.
Kalergi’s writing about creating a multicultural Europe, destroying the power of the parliaments and of the governments of individual states remains valid until today. This is expressed in the “Coudenhove Kalergi Prise” which was given to Helmut Kohl thanking him for following the plan. Also the Free Mason and powerful European politician Jean-Claude Juncker, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, was provided this same “award.”
Kalergi promoted “pacifism” which was required to integrate all nations into his plan. Yet, at the same time Kalergi promoted brutal force carried out by Jews, as is apparent today in the state of Israel. Kalergi publicly supported the declaration of equality, before law, but as the plan provides that declaration of equality was only to remain until the Zionist system of supremacy was to be abrogated. Since Kalergi’s plan had been initiated, the “high racist noble” Jews have been working to reinforce their power over the non-Jews by a “justified inequality.”
Kalergi praised Jews as the creators of socialism, communism and capitalism. In 1923, at the time when Kalergi presented his plan, he praised himself as a communist capitalist. Kalergi was already aware at that time that Jewish Bolshevists had murdered over fifty million in the Ukraine and Russia. Kalergi stated that he wanted to see a unified, “gunpowder, gold and ink” in the hands of the “Jewish supreme race.” With this, Kalergi established his ideology, which was well-known to Adolf Hitler, even before he rose to power in Germany. With knowledge of this Zionist plan, Hitler began disassembling control of Germany by Jews. He removed Jews from the finance industry, the media, the schools, the publication houses, the courts, and legislation. In general, Hitler confirmed that there was a Jewish thirst for power, and only those branded as “anti-Semitic” were able to recognize what was to become of Europe.
Kalergi’s Plan, funded for, and promoted by Jewish, and Zionist interests remains a viable, yet diabolical plan that is being carried out even today. In order for these Jew “nobles” to realize their “supremacy” over us all, it is imperative for them to destroy the middle-east, and in the process destroy Europe, by flooding those nations with people of other races, religions and ethnicities.
The only way to prevent these Zionists from obtaining their goal is to halt the mass migration into Europe, and send the invading hoards back to the nations they fled from. The final step in preserving Caucasian cultures, and civilized European societies, is to abolish Zionism, and its followers from the face of this Earth. Expulsion, exile, and extermination of those infected with the Zionist’s false narrative is the only way to bring peace to the world, and to preserve true multiculturalism.
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THE CULT OF SHINTO EXPOSED
The cult of Shinto, which is Japanese in origin, is a polytheistic religion that grew out of superstitions that are animist in nature. Shinto’s prehistoric beginnings were not based on moral ideology. Despite this fact, Shinto was declared a state religion forced upon the entire nation of Japan. The declaration of Shinto as a state religion came long before the emperor was elevated to the status of a god.
In the past tyrannical dictators, pretenders to the throne, and maniacal monarchs professed that they descended from the heavens. Jesus said, “I am he that sent me.” King Louis XIV of France was held out to be the sun king. The Catholic Church resolutely proclaimed that popes were infallible gods manifest in the form of human beings. For those that didn’t adhere to those “prophesies” they were tortured, and thereafter tried as heretics. Protestants and non-believers weren’t just crucified throughout all of Europe, but in Japan as well. Today, Japan and North Korea are the only nations that continue to claim that its emperor is a god that descended from heaven.
For centuries the Japanese have claimed they are a divine, and unique race, especially where it concerns the Yamato clan. This includes the current emperor, and his father Hirohito, a WWII war criminal, known to the Japanese as Showa, a name that originated out of the Shinto cult.
In the cult of Shinto, all human beings who are not Japanese are inferior. Those who maintain power over the cult continue unto this day to profess that the Japanese are a divine, unique and superior race destined to rule the world. From this foundational pretext, one question must be addressed. How did these absurd notions originate?
In the beginning…
Shinto originated as a cult religion based on a belief in, and worship of kami. What are kami? Kami may be elements of the landscape, such as a mountain or a river. They may also be powerful natural forces, such as a storm upon a raging sea, or a tornado ripping through a terrorized community. The worship of objects, and elements began in pre-historic times when people were incapable of understanding, rationalizing and explaining everyday natural occurrences.
The first inhabitants of Japan migrated from China’s mainland. These people did not arrive as a divine race, or with an emperor leading the way. These first people that arrived in Japan crossed frozen ice as mere nomadic hunter-gathers who subsisted off of the land. The early inhabitants of Japan brought with them prehistoric rituals that originated from animism, which was a form of religious practice that prevailed throughout all of prehistoric Asia at that time. Legendary individuals, significant places and other phenomena, such as a mountain or a powerful river became objects of reverence. These people and forces would become known as kami.
The rites associated with the worship of kami would eventually become known as Shinto. Early on the religious practices culminated into a profusion of local deities worshipped and prayed to as kami. Kami is translated into meaning, the way of the gods. With the emergence of a strong unity between clan groups, each provided special honors to kami, most notably ancestors of the ruling clan. The practice of turning ancestors of clan rulers into deities, gave those in power prestige and the ability to maintain power and control over clan members.
A clan known as Yamamoto did not migrate to Japan in the classic nomadic sense. The Yamamoto fled the mainland of China because more power tribal bands had defeated them in battle, and pursued them with the intention of eradicating them from planet Earth. For the Yamamoto, their arrival in Japan was as an exiled group. By the 4th century AD, the Yamato had achieved imperial status, with the emperor being elevated amongst even the most prominent kami. In order to maintain this elevated status, and for the Yamamoto to hold power over the growing population, a narrative had to be created. That narrative came in the form of a sun goddess the Japanese named Amaterasu. Over time, Amaterasu became the most powerful and well known of all kami. It was in the 4th century that the Yamato began claiming there ancestors were the descendants of the goddess of heaven. It was in this manner that the imperial family politicized religion so as to maintain complete control over the Japanese. Shinto teachings become the driving force for Japan’s imperial family to haughtily claim a divine right to rule over the inhabitants of the nation, and over all of the barbaric hordes of the world.
In the 6th century CE Buddhism was imported into Japanese religious life and Buddhism and Shinto together began to play a role in Japanese government. The emperor and court were required to perform religious ceremonies they believed would ensure that the kami protected Japan and its people. Over the next few centuries Buddhist influence in government grew stronger.
The 17th century of Japan’s politics was dominated by a state imposed Buddhism that continued to hold on to several aspects of Shinto practices. This would be no different than when the Romans became Christians, and changed Roman gods, or Greek origin into Christian spirits. The winter solstice of Rome became Christmas, the birth of the Jesus child. The worship of Diane became the worship of Mary, and Easter came out of fertility rites. The 17th century Japan saw elements of Confucianism emerge into politics. By this time popular religion consisted mainly of Buddhism and Shinto practices. There was a movement toward an unmodified Shinto faith during the next two centuries, culminating in the Meiji Restoration of Shinto toward the end of the 19th century, when Shinto became the established religion of Japan.
The rise of the cult of Shinto
The Meiji Restoration in 1868 brought an abrupt change in the religious climate of Japan. The aim was to provide a sacred foundation and a religious rationale for a modern Japan that was struggling to formulate its own identity. Shinto was seen as a way to centralize the administration of governmental affairs. It was during this time that the cult of Shinto was entirely separated from Buddhism, and brought within the structure of the state administration. Amaterasu, who until then had not been a major divinity, was popularized, and used as propaganda to validate the role of the emperor, not only as the ruler of Japan, but also as the high priest of Shinto. Many shrines were supported by through state funding. One result of reformation was that it was no longer tolerable for kami to be identified with Buddhist deities, and a considerable reorganization of the Japanese pantheon of spirit beings had to take place. Shrines were cleansed of every trace of Buddhist imagery, apparatus, and ritual, and Buddhist deities lost their godly status. Buddhist priests were stripped of their status, and Shinto priests were appointed by the government to take over Buddhist shrines with an implicit mission to purify them from any foreign influence. Shinto became the glue that bound the Japanese people together with a mix of devotion to kami, ancestor worship, and group loyalty to those that held regional power.
Shinto became inseparable from the imperial way, and the fundamental code of Japan. To officials this made Shinto superior because they claimed that human beings created other religions. Therefore, to them, Shinto held a unique non-religious status due to its “true” heavenly origin.
The officials in Japan operated their government during the Meiji Period in three distinct branches. This allowed a handful of the elite to maintain total control over every aspect of the ordinary Japanese. First, there were the courts, which based legal determinations on control and fear, not the rule of law. Second, there was the political and military branch, which were inseparable. Finally, the state sponsored cult of Shinto, which was the force that greatly influenced military determinations. Together these forces ruled over the people of Japan with an iron thumb and instilled enormous fears for those who were subjected to the indoctrination of the cult. Anyone that opposed even the smallest of whims of the emperor found themselves in a death march procession, which led to the other side of the Bridge of Tears, and into the untouchable land of the Burakumin, who were tasked with disposing of the corpse of the condemned. Even today, it remains an unlawful act to even walk on the shadow of Japan’s emperor.
The myth of Japan’s emperor as god
The idea that the Japanese emperor has Korean blood irks even the most liberal of the Japanese. Removing this fact presents the Japanese with an “unstained” origin, which hailed from the heavens. The cult of Shinto, aided by government, instilled into the people that the “first emperor” of Japan, Jimmu had descended from heaven as the greatest desire of the sun goddess. Amaterasu The sun goddess was none other than Jimmu’s grandmother, who had given birth to kami who were Jimmu’s parents. This means that Jimmu was born out of incest, as most Japanese deities. It must be noted that the constant reference to incestual relationships in the cult of Shinto may have played a significant role in Japanese pornography, which is obsessed with violent assaults and rapes by fathers toward their daughters, and mothers who seduce sons that are socially inept.
Amaterasu, the grandmother of Jimmu is considered the greatest of all kami who had many children and grandchildren. In consultation with other senior kami she decided that an imperial family should rule Japan forever. This divine ancestry of the emperors of Japan acknowledges the power of the female, something that is at odds with gender roles in Japanese life, and Nippon Kaigi, which intends to remove the constitutional protection of equal rights for women, and to make them subservient to their male counterparts as a constitutionally required duty.
Shinto has been a major part of Japanese life and culture throughout the country’s history, but for the greater part of that history, Shinto has shared its spiritual, cultural, and political roles with Buddhism and Confucianism. It must be noted that before the arrival of Buddhism to Japan there was no formal Shinto religion. There were only local cults that for convenience today are grouped under the Shinto moniker.
Like many prehistoric people, the first inhabitants of Japan were animists. Animism is the belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena. This means that the early inhabitants of Japan were devoted to the spirits of nature. In their case these were the kami that were found in plants and animals, mountains and seas, storms and earthquakes, sand and all significant natural phenomena.
The early Japanese developed rituals and stories which enabled them to make sense of their universe, by creating a spiritual and cultural world that gave them historical roots, and a way of seeming to take control of their lives, in what would otherwise have been a fearful and puzzling landscape.
Other cults that are grouped into Shinto arrived in Japan from Korea with the Korean tribes that arrived in Japan in late prehistoric times. Religions were highly localized, and not organized into a single cohesive faith at this point.
The creation of Japan according to the cult of Shinto
Izanami and Izanagi. A painting by Kobayashi Eitaku. Circa 1885.
According to early Shinto teachings, in the beginning there was chaos, and out of that chaos the universe was established. Out of this newly created cosmos a number of gods simultaneously, and miraculously appeared. Of those gods a brother and sister named Izanagi and Izanami fell in love, married, and discovered sexual intercourse, which they greatly enjoyed. These two gods are then said to have plunged a jeweled spear into the ocean on planet Earth, and through that act, land began to form. The first place that the spear touched the water would be the central island of Japan, which today is known as the island of Honshu, where Tokyo is located.
Izanagi and Izanami continued to have sexual relations, and because of this, a child was born. They called that child Hiruko, which is Japanese for leech because he was born grossly deformed. Because of this deformity his parents considered him inadequate, and abandoned him, setting him adrift in a reed boat on the ocean. The myth claims that Hiruko’s deformity was due to Izanami speaking first during the intercourse, which conceived the child. Throughout Japanese history, the act of abandoning an imperfect child has been justified because the creators of Japan had done the same thing.
The brother and sister gods continued to enjoy sexual relations, and other offspring include all other Japanese islands as well as many other kami. Izanami suffered a significant injury while giving birth to one child. The cult of Shinto claims that her vagina was severely burned while giving birth to the kami of fire. As a result, she died from those injuries. Izanami’s death resulted in the first death on Earth. Izanagi, overwhelmed by sorrow, became furious, and beheaded the newborn child whom he blamed for the death of his wife/sister. Other kami were born out of the blood of the execution of fire. Thereafter, the grief-stricken Izanami traveled to the underworld in search of his wife/sister. The underworld was known as Yomi, which is where all of the dead are consigned at the end of their life. Izanagi managed to locate Izanami, but she had already eaten the fruit of the dead, and because of this was doomed to remain in Yomi perpetually. When Izanami saw Izanagi approaching her, she compelled him not to look at her, but instead to give her time to consult with the rulers of the underworld so as to see if they could be persuaded into allowing her return to the land of the living. Izanagi did promise not to look upon his sister/wife but reneged on that promise discovering that Izanami’s body had rotted, and was full of maggots.
Izanagi was horrified at the sight of Izanami, and attempted to flee to the land of the living, but Izanami grew angered and was ashamed at being seen in a state of decay. She pursued Izanagi, wanting to capture him so as to force him to live with her in the underworld forever. Izanagi managed to escape Yomi, and thereafter blocked the entrance to the underworld with a large boulder, so that Izanami could not follow him. That boulder formed a chasm, a permanent barrier between the worlds of the living and the dead. Izanami became enraged as a result, and vowed from that day forward to execute one thousand people every day. Izanagi created fifteen hundred newborn babies each day as retaliation for the deaths of the innocent victims of Izanami.
The origination of purification rituals in Japan
Izanagi’s time in the underworld, and coming been in contact with the dead required his purification. This was due to his belief that having ventured into the underworld plagued him with misfortune. Izanagi decided to bathe in the ocean to wash away the pollution of death, and to restore providence. The cult of Shinto teaches that Izanagi’s act of bathing, known as a harae purification ritual, was the first time the ritual had been performed.
During Izanagi’s bath a number of kami were created. This included Izanagi’s daughter, Amaterasu, who would become the sun goddess. It is also taught that Izanagi gave birth at that time to Amaterasu’s younger brother Susanoo. The myth teaches that Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed his right eye. Susanoo was born with Izanagi blew his nostrils. Other children born from that washing include the kami wind and storms.
Over time, Amaterasu would become the most powerful legendary figure of the Japanese. Shinto priests teach that the entire imperial lineage can be traced all the way back to Amaterasu, through one hundred and twenty five births, beginning with the grandson Jimmu. Because of this, the followers in the cult of Shinto teach that because Japanese emperors originated from heaven, they are divine and by rights are to be worshipped, and prayed to for spiritual guidance. It is taught that Jimmu was sent to Earth, as Japan’s first emperor to reign over the Japanese. The Shinto myth claims even today that the native Japanese descended from the kami who were present at the founding of Japan. Because of this supernatural connection to heaven, which no one but the Japanese have, they are destined to rule over the eight corners of the earth, and over all of the barbarians hordes (non-Japanese.) In the late 19th and first half of the 20th centuries Shinto became an established state religion, inextricably linked to the cause of Japanese nationalism, and was significantly involved in the false flag operation, the Manchuku Incident, which initiated Japan’s aggressions toward all neighboring states during WWII.
Amaterasu as goddess of heaven
Amaterasu is coaxed out of a cave, bringing light back to heaven and Earth.
Izanagi gave Amaterasu authority to rule heaven. Susanoo was disheartened at this appointment, as he was a male child, and his sister, merely a woman who often acted out of pettiness. Susanoo’s tantrums led him to behave so badly that he was banished from heaven. One such act led to Amaterasu hiding in a cave, and being the goddess of light, caused the heavens and the earth to remain void of light so long as she remained hidden in a cave. Regardless of his bad actions, Susanoo remained an important and powerful kami. Although Susanoo has dreadful powers of destruction, he is worshipped at many shrines for having the power to prevent disasters.
What led Amaterasu to hide away in a cave? The story is told that one day, Susanoo was in a drunken rage, trampled Amaterasu’s rice fields, emptied all of her irrigation ditches and threw excrement inside her palace and shrines. The omikami asked Susanoo to stop but he ignored them, going so far as to throw the corpse of a giant skinned horse through the roof of Amaterasu’s castle, and at her handmaidens who were weaving at the time. The women were killed by the wooden when it broke apart and pierced their bodies. This caused Amaterasu such grief that she ran into a cave and began moping about therein. Immediately, thereafter the universe, as well as the heavens and Earth below fell into darkness. Hundreds of kami then gathered outside, and pleaded with Amaterasu to leave the cave. Still sulking, she refused to consider their desires. The kami then brought thousands of roosters to the entrance of the cave, and placed a mirror at the entrance. The kami then threw a party of debauchery, during which a particular female kami decided to perform a striptease. As this female kami was engaged in removing articles of her clothing, the other kami began to hoot and holler. Amaterasu became curious as to what was happening outside of the cave, and opened a door that had been blocking the entrance. She wanted to see what was going on. One kami who was large in stature grabbed Amaterasu, and prevented her from returning to the cave. He also placed a large object at the entrance to block the door from being opened again. As Amaterasu exited the cave, light immediately entered the world again; thousands of roosters cock-a-doodle-dooed. Amaterasu saw her reflection in a mirror for the first time, and became enthralled at her beauty. Susanoo offered his sister a sword as a token of apology. A gemstone was offered to Amaterasu’s by her brother/husband as a way to amend for murdering her friend Mochi, the goddess of food. After being presented with these three gifts, the kami persuaded Amaterasu to take her proper place in the cosmos. Susanoo was asked to rule over Earth, which he refused. Amaterasu would later ask her grandson Jimmu to rule over Earth, which he accepted. He brought along with him the three, royal regalia to prove his heavenly origin.
The most important kami have many stories associated with them. None of the stories told about any Shinto kami are based on morality. There is no concept of sin, right or wrong, or even common sense. The book of Proverbs in Judaism give profound lessons such as one found in the book of Proverbs 20:1, which states, Wine is a mocker, and strong drink is raging and those who are deceived thereby are not wise. The New Testaments in Luke 6:37 states, Judge not and you shall not be judged, for what measures you mete, they shall be met unto you. Buddhist and Confucian teachings are filled with intellectually based teachings. The cult of Shinto had no moral teachings whatsoever until Buddhism became part of Shintoism. As shown above, the stories told by Shinto priests, as truths are as absurd and petty as Greek mythology. State sponsored Shinto eradicated all aspects of Buddhism, leaving the Japanese with nothing more than endless rituals, which are as hollow and empty as an urn with a large hole in its bottom.
Shinto kami include Mochi the goddess of food, who was murdered when she began to defecate food. Benten, a female kami with Hindu origins, who is associated with music and the arts. Ebisu is a kami who is said to bring prosperity to the Japanese. Ebisu was originally the abandoned leech-child of Izanami and Izanagi. This kami provided the Japanese the justification to abandoned unwanted children, and aging parents, which continues to this day. Hachiman is the god of archery and war. Izanagi and his wife/sister Izanami gave birth to Japan. Konpira is the kami of safety at sea, but was originally a Buddhist deity who was the protector of sailors, fishermen, and merchant ships. Tenjin is the kami of education. Tenjin was in reality the Shinto scholar Sugawara no Michizane (845-903 CE). Students taking exams in Japan often ask Tenjin to grant them good scores. Student prayer tablets can be seen at shrines throughout Japan. Those prayer tablets are scribbled on with pen or marker, and placed on thin, rectangular wooden blocks, often stamped with the image of Tenjin. A student prayer tablet can be purchased by anyone at a cost of about 500 ¥.
Despite what is readily accepted, for most of Japanese history the emperor’s status as the direct descendant of the founding kami was not reflected in his political power. In fact, until the Meiji restoration the emperor had little power, and instead was a largely unknown and ceremonial figure. Japan was actually run by feudal noblemen, known as Daimyo, and the emperor lived in either seclusion, or at times in imprisonment, being held as a political pawn.
From the 6th century CE the beliefs that are now known as Shinto were greatly altered by the addition of other ingredients, especially Buddhism, which arrived in Japan from India. From then on Shinto faiths and traditions took on Buddhist elements, and later Confucian elements as well. Some Shinto shrines became Buddhist temples, and coexisted within Buddhist temples, or had Buddhist priests in charge. Buddhist temples began to spring up all over Japan, and Buddhist ideologies began to be explored as the population increased.
The ruling aristocracy saw advantages in harnessing Shinto, Confucianism and Buddhism in order to maintain rule over the people of Japan. At the same period, government took a role in religion with the establishment of the “Department for the Affairs of the Deities.”
Shinto became greatly disadvantaged to Buddhism and Confucianism because it lacked intellectual doctrines. This meant that the development of Japanese theology and philosophy inevitably drew on the comparative intellectual richness of Buddhism and Confucianism. Buddhism began to expand significantly, and was given a role in supporting the growing influence of central government. The idea was put forward that humans should follow the will of the gods in political life. The rule of the state was referred to as matsurigoto, a word very close to that for religious ritual, matsuri that was used to refer to both government and worship.
The emperor and the court began to have distinct religious obligations, and ceremonies that had to be carried out meticulously to ensure that the kami protected Japan and its people. These ceremonies, which included as many Buddhist and Confucian elements as they did Shinto became part of the administrative calendar of the Japanese government. As time went on, the Japanese became more and more accustomed to including both kami and Buddhist ideas in their spiritual lives. Philosophers put forward the idea that the kami were transformations of the Buddha manifested in Japan to save all sentient beings.
During the 7th and 8th centuries the spiritual status of the emperor as the descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu became official doctrine, and was buttressed by rituals and the establishment of the Ise shrines as the shrines of the divine imperial family. Over the next few centuries the Buddhist influence in government grew steadily stronger, despite the Dokyo Affair that took place in the middle of the 8th century. Between the 11th and 15th centuries Japanese government was in the hands of three interdependent power blocs: the court, the aristocracy, and the religious establishments, although there is some debate as to whether the various religious groups were ever able to present a united front, or whether they ever had as much political muscle as the other two blocs. The 16th century was a time of conflict in Japan, but religious establishments continued to play a part in the administration of the various territories of the country. Missionaries arrived in Japan during this period and started converting people from Shinto and Buddhism to Christianity. Christianity was seen as a political threat and was ruthlessly stamped out. The 17th century was dominated by Buddhism heavily laden with Shinto partly because anti-Christian measures were forced every. Japanese civic religion retained elements of Confucianism in its political and administrative thinking. Buddhist temples came under the control of the state, and the training of priests and the management of temples and the hierarchy was effectively state supervised.
In the two centuries before the Meiji period there was a movement towards a purer form of Shinto, with a particular focus on the Japanese people as being the descendants of the gods and superior to other races. Due to state supervision of churches, including licensing requirements, Buddhist and other influences were filtered out of institutions and rituals. This was done to create a unified faith from a group of many ideas, beliefs and rituals.
It was during the 1930s that Shinto priests taught that the emperor was god, manifest in the form of a human being in which the property of kami nature was perfectly revealed. The emperor’s qualities of kami nature together with his direct descent from Amaterasu, the highest of the kami, made him so superior that the Japanese thought it entirely logical that people should obey the emperor and worship him.
Despite the westernization of Japan’s mythological religious thought, Shintoists continue to claim, as they always had, that human are incapable of understanding the true nature of kami, because kami are not like the gods of other faiths:
Kami are not divine like the deities found in other religions.
Kami are not omnipotent.
Kami are not perfect, they make mistakes and often behave badly.
Kami are not inherently different from human beings or nature.
Kami are a higher manifestation of life energy.
Kami don’t exist in a supernatural universe.
Kami live in the same world as human beings and of nature.
Kami are sometimes applied to spirits that live in things, but they also apply directly to things themselves, so the kami of a mountain, or a waterfall may actually be the mountain or waterfall itself, rather than the spirit of the mountain or waterfall. Finally, not all kami have names!
In principle human beings, birds, animals, trees, plants, mountains, oceans, and divine entities may be kami. Whatever seemed strikingly impressive, possessed the quality of excellence, or inspired a feeling of awe, this was kami.
Three types of kami are important to the cult of Shinto:
Ujigami are ancestors of clans. In tribal times, each clan believed a particular kami. These were deceased ancestors, and were the protectors of the clan. Clans dedicated their worship to that particular spiritual entity.
Kami are natural objects, living beings, and forces of nature.
The souls of dead humans, while living, accomplished some kind of outstanding achievement.
The end of the fairytale
Three key documents dismantled Shinto as the state religion of Japan after the Second World War. The documents parallel Shinto purification rituals, since their purpose was to restore purity and cleanliness to a religion that had been polluted by political action. Those documents are:
The Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto. (1945)
The Imperial Rescript renouncing Divinity. (1946)
Japan’s post-war Constitution.
The first of these documents is one of the most powerful condemnations of the abuse of religion ever written. The purpose of The Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto was not to destroy Shinto but to prevent recurrence of the perversion of Shinto theory and beliefs into militaristic and ultra-nationalistic propaganda designed to delude the Japanese people and lead them into wars of aggression.
The restructuring of the Japanese education system was a key initiative in the religious reforms. Although Shinto is no longer a state religion many Japanese still regard Shinto as the national religion, but post-war Shinto is very different from the pre-1946 version, having been cleansed of the political, nationalistic and militaristic elements that were included in State Shinto.
The present Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of religion in Article 20: Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority. No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.
Further protection of religious freedom is given in Article 14, which forbids “discrimination in political, economic, or social relations because of creed”, and Article 19, which states, “Freedom of thought and conscience shall not be violated”. Article 89 adds further separation of religion and states that no public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.
Shinto was disestablished in 1946, when the emperor lost his divine status as part of the Allied reformation of Japan. This constitutional mandate was established in Article 89 of Japan’s constitution. The main objective of Article 89 was to ensure that the Shinto cult was stripped of its ability to use religion as a pretext to indoctrinate the masses, and to use that indoctrination as a political tool. In the Imperial rescript on January 1st, 1946, the emperor wrote, “The ties between us and our people have always stood on mutual trust and affection. They do not depend upon mere legends and myths. They are not predicated on the false conception that the emperor is divine, and that the Japanese people are superior to other races and fated to rule the world.”
Despite the loss of official status Shinto remains a significant player in Japanese life, and a dark force in political determinations. Most notably is the recent exposure of a group known as Nippon Kaigi, which will be discussed in more detail further in this article. Despite the non-divine status of the emperor, considerable religious ritual and mysticism still surround many imperial observances.
The allied forces at the end of WWII, attempted to ensure that the Shinto cult was permanently eradicated from the conscience of the Japanese people. The allied mandate to abolish the Shinto cult as a political tool was voted into law by two-thirds of both houses of the Japanese political establishment. Any changes to the constitutional provision of the separation of church and state requires a two-thirds vote of both house and a referendum by the majority of voters.
The priestly status that the emperor inherited ceased to exist. His ritual functions ceased being national tasks and instead have become private Shinto devotions designed to preserve the good fortune of Japan, and the continuity of the imperial line.
The return of a delusional mindset
In 2000, the Japanese Prime Minister, Yoshiro Mori, sparked a controversy by once again describing Japan as a divine country centered on the emperor. Mori made the statement during a meeting with pro-Shinto politicians. Mori later apologized, claiming his reference to the divine emperor was about the importance of tradition and education.
As of 2016, in direct violation of the constitutional requirement of the separation of church and state, the vast majority of Shinto shrines have been displaying banners calling for Japanese to support Nippon Kaigi and their affiliates, and the Liberal Democrat Party’s constitutional amendments. Part of the constitutional rewrite restores the Shinto cult as a branch of the Japanese government, and to its state of former glory.
The Liberal Democrat Party currently has control of more than two-thirds of representative seats in both houses. Shinzo Abe, Japan’s current prime minister, as part of his economic plan, nonsensically called, “Abenomics” is in reality Nippon Kaigi’s agenda to rewrite Japan’s entire constitution. Nippon Kaigi’s constitutional draft amendment includes provisions that are quite disturbing. They include the removal of free speech, free press, equality for women, no rights for foreigners, and justification unconstitutional acts that the courts, police and prosecutors already engage in, under the guise of “new human rights.” Abe has already stated that The Declaration of Human Rights, the most basic tenet of a nation becoming a member of the United Nation is “not the law, and not enforceable upon Japan.” The Asian Pacific Journal recently wrote that if Nippon Kaigi, and the LDP get their way, Japan’s will return to a totalitarian dictatorship, with the emperor at the head.
Nippon Kaigi was exposed by one of its former key members, Sugano Tamotsu. Tamotsu, disgusted with the organizations repugnant views on human rights exposed the organization in his book titled, Nippon Kaigi no Kenkyu. Abe called Tamotsu a “traitor” and fervently attempted to block the release of the book, which exposes Abe, the LDP, and Nippon Kaigi’s true agenda. Tamotsu calls Abe and the other members of Nippon Kaigi, delusional old men who have become mentally ill through the guilt, and humiliation they suffer as a result of their family names being permanent stained for the war crimes they are responsible for, and their total lack of remorse. Tamotsu stated that, Nippon Kaigi members seek nothing more than to exonerate their families, to return the Yasakuni Shrine to a place of reverence, and to rewind the clock back to the Meiji era when Japan was a nation that threatened regional stability. Click here to learn more about the cult of Shinto, and how they are secretly running the nation of Japan.
The cult of Shinto’s return to political and religious power would restore the religion to a government branch that highly influences national policy. The method they would use to gain that power would be to instill a constitutionally created obligation for all Japanese to adhere to religious, and financial duties owed to the state. The cult would use the same techniques that were used successful prior to, and during WWII. They would indoctrinate young children through compulsory education, and compulsory worship practices that include reciting prayers in school that are directed at emperor worship, and to sing national anthems that are currently prohibited. The indoctrination requires all Japanese to worship the emperor as a god, the imposition of reciting daily prayers to the emperor, and to sing imperial inspired anthems that are warmongering by design. These rituals would instill in the mind of the Japanese that they are superior to all other life forms on planet Earth.
The Supreme Court of Japan has already held that Japanese teachers must perform the “duties” proscribed herein, or face hefty fines, or termination. There already exists, government paid “listeners” who are dispatched to schools who engage in government sponsored eavesdropping, so as to ensure that teachers participate in government mandated activities, and do so vigorously. The teachers unions of Japan, which were originally organized by foreigners, are despised by the Japanese government, and Japan’s Ministry of Education.
Today, Shinto is experiencing an increase in popularity amongst Japan’s aging relics. This is due to the ambitions of the descendants of Showa worshippers.
The separation of the Shinto cult and government are detailed in the Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto, which was an order issued by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers to Japanese officials at the end or WWII. It was presented on December 15th, 1945, and went into effect immediately. The directive details the requirements of the abolition of state sponsored religion. The entire document is available to read below.
Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto
Orders from the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to the Japanese Government:
15 December 1945
MEMORANDUM FOR: Imperial Japanese Government
THROUGH: Central Liaison Office, Tokyo
SUBJECT: Abolition of Governmental Sponsorship, Support, Perpetuation, Control, and Dissemination of State Shinto
In order to free the Japanese people from direct or indirect compulsion to believe or profess to believe in a religion or cult officially designated by the state, and
In order to lift from the Japanese people the burden of compulsory financial support of an ideology which has contributed to their war guilt, defeat, suffering, privation, and present deplorable condition, and
In order to prevent recurrence of the perversion of Shinto theory and beliefs into militaristic and ultra-nationalistic propaganda designed to delude the Japanese people and lead them into wars of aggression, and
In order to assist the Japanese people in a rededication of their national life to building a new Japan based upon ideals of perpetual peace and democracy,
It is hereby directed that:
The sponsorship, support, perpetuation, control, and dissemination of Shinto by the Japanese national, prefectual, and local governments, or by public officials, subordinates, and employees acting in their official capacity are prohibited and will cease immediately.
All financial support from public funds and all official affiliation with Shinto and Shinto shrines are prohibited and will cease immediately.
All propagation and dissemination of militaristic and ultra-nationistic ideology in Shinto doctrines, practices, rites, ceremonies, or observances, as well as in the doctrines, practices, rites, ceremonies and observances of any other religion, faith, sect, creed, or philosophy, are prohibited and will cease immediately.
The Religious Functions Order relating to the Grand Shrine of Ise and the Religious Functions Order relating to State and other Shrines will be annulled.
The Shrine Board of the Ministry of Home Affairs will be abolished, and its present functions, duties, and administrative obligations will not be assumed by any other governmental or tax-supported agency.
All public educational institutions whose primary function is either the investigation and dissemination of Shinto or the training of a Shinto priesthood will be abolished and their physical properties diverted to other uses. Their present functions, duties, and administrative obligations will not be assumed by any other governmental or tax-supported agency.
Private educational institutions for the investigation and dissemination of Shinto and for the training of priesthood for Shinto will be permitted and will operate with the same privileges and be subject to the same controls and restrictions as any other private educational institution having no affiliation with the government; in no case, however, will they receive support from public funds, and in no case will they propagate and disseminate militaristic and ultra-nationalistic ideology.
The dissemination of Shinto doctrines in any form and by any means in any educational institution supported wholly or in part by public funds is prohibited and will cease immediately.
1) All teachers’ manuals and text-books now in use in any educational institution supported wholly or in part by public funds will be censored, and all Shinto doctrine will be deleted. No teachers’ manual or text-book which is published in the future for use in such institutions will contain any Shinto doctrine.
2) No visits to Shinto shrines and no rites, practices, or ceremonies associated with Shinto will be conducted or sponsored by any educational institution supported wholly or in part by public funds.
Circulation by the government of “The Fundamental Principles of the National Structure”, “The Way of the Subject”, and all similar official volumes, commentaries, interpretations, or instructions on Shinto is prohibited.
The use in official writings of the terms “Greater East Asia War”, “The Whole World under One Roof”, and all other terms whose connotation in Japanese is inextricably connected with State Shinto, militarism, and ultra-nationalism is prohibited and will cease immediately.
God-shelves (kamidana) and all other physical symbols of State Shinto in any office, school institution, organization, or structure supported wholly or in part by public funds are prohibited and will be removed immediately.
No official, subordinate, employee, student, citizen, or resident of Japan will be discriminated against because of his failure to profess and believe in or participate in any practice, rite, ceremony, or observance of State Shinto or of any other religion.
No official of the national, prefectural, or local government, acting in his public capacity, will visit any shrine to report his assumption of office, to report on conditions of government, or to participate as a representative of government in any ceremony or observance.
a. The purpose of this directive is to separate religion from the state to prevent misuse of religion for political ends, and to put all religions, faiths, and creeds upon exactly the same legal basis, entitled to precisely the same opportunities and protection. It forbids affiliation with the government and the propagation and dissemination of militaristic and ultra-nationalistic ideology not only to Shinto but to the followers of all religions, faiths, sects, creeds, or philosophies.
The provisions of this directive will apply with equal force to all rites, practices, ceremonies, observances, beliefs, teachings, mythology, legends, philosophy, shrines, and physical symbols associated with Shinto.
The term State Shinto within the meaning of this directive will refer to that branch of Shinto which by official acts of the Japanese Government has been differentiated from the religion of Shrine Shinto and has been classified as a non-religious national cult commonly known as State Shinto or National Shinto.
The term Shrine Shinto will refer to that branch of Shinto which by popular belief, legal commentary, and the official acts of the Japanese Government has been recognized to be a religion.
Pursuant to the terms of Article I of the Basic Directive on “Removal of Restrictions on Political, Civil, and Religious Liberties” issued on 4 October 1945 by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in which the Japanese people were assured complete religious freedom,
(1) Shrine Shinto will enjoy the same protection as any other religion.
(2) Shrine Shinto, after having been divorced from the state and divested of its militaristic and ultra-nationalistic elements, will be recognized as a religion if its adherents so desire and will be granted the same protection as any other religion in so far as it may in fact be the philosophy or religion of Japanese individuals.
Militaristic and ultra-nationalistic ideology, as used in this directive, embraces those teachings, beliefs, and theories, which advocate or justify a mission on the part of Japan to extend its rule over other nations and peoples by reason of:
(1) The doctrine that the Emperor of Japan is superior to the heads of other states because of ancestry, descent, or special origin. (2) The doctrine that the people of Japan are superior to the people of other lands because of ancestry, descent, or special origin.
(3) The doctrine that the islands of Japan are superior to other lands because of divine or special origin.
(4) Any other doctrine which tends to delude the Japanese people into embarking upon wars of aggression or to glorify the use of force as an instrument for the settlement of disputes with other people.
The Imperial Japanese Government will submit a comprehensive report to this Headquarters not later than 15 March 1946 describing in detail all action taken to comply with all provisions of this directive.
All officials, subordinates and employees of the Japanese national prefectural, and local governments, all teachers and education officials and all citizens and residents of Japan will be held personally accountable for compliance with the spirit as well as the letter of all provisions of this directive.
For the Supreme Commander:
[Signed] H. W. Allen
Asst. Adjutant General
Why the mandate was crucial for regional stability and why it should remain
Prior to, and during WWII, Japan’s Shinto cult had been a propaganda, and brainwashing tool of the political/military branches of government, and the dark forces that controlled them. Shinto teachings were compulsory and forced upon every Japanese. The consequences for refusing to comply with these duties to the state were similar to those that rejected the instructions of the Roman Catholic Church; heresy proceedings, imprisonment, torture and death.
The secular forces that gained the most from these constraints were the imperial family, the military, and three main shrines that facilitated the myth through espousing the belief that royal regalia, which they claimed, and continue to claim originated from heaven, and as a result proves that the emperor of Japan, and his lineage were in fact deities that could be traced back to Amaterasu, and their heavenly origin. Those shrines still exist today and have waited over seventy years to regain their prior significance. The royal regalia the followers of the cult claim to exist include a sword, a jewel, and a mirror. It is said that these objects are housed at the Atsuta Shrine in Nagoya, the Three Palaces Sanctuaries in Kyoto, and the Ise Grand Shrine in Mie Prefecture.
The shrine of Ise had once wielded great political power, and they want it back. The Ise shrine, which is the main shrine to Amaterasu is rebuilt every twenty years to the tune of millions of dollars, all money donated from the cult’s adherents. The mere size of the shrine, which is about the size of the city of Paris, reflects the power that the cult once enjoyed. It’s been more than seventy years since this shrine was stripped of its political might. The shrine continues to lure visitors under the continued claim that the shrine houses one of the royal regalia the “first” emperor of Japan, Jimmu, brought with him from heaven, being guided by his grandmother Amaterasu. Ise’s priests claim to engage in thousands of religious ceremonies each year. The sole purpose of all of these prayers, according to the shrine’s website is to pray for the prosperity of Japan’s emperor, and of course the return of their power.
Now, before rushing to visit one of these shrines so as to get a glimpse of these heavenly artifacts, I have to warn you… You can’t see them! Why? Because you are a mere mortal! If you were to look at any of those items you would immediately go blind. The only beings capable of viewing the heavenly objects are the emperor himself, and of course, the priests that perform the ceremonies performed who benefit greatly by adhering to the falsehoods of the cult. In “fact” the last time these items were brought out for viewing was when current emperor Akihito, succeeded his war criminal father Hirohito/Showa, on January 7th, 1989.
The origins of the cult of Shinto and its involvement with WWII are virtually unknown to the Japanese today. This included my wife, who is Japanese. She knew almost nothing about Shinto. This is because Article 89 of Japan’s constitution had done what it was supposed to do. To protect children who are easily misguided through false teachings. Upon learning what the Shinto Cult asserts as fact, my wife said, “Who would believe any of that?” I had to remind her that nearly every person in Japan believed in, or were forced to pretend to believe in the false teachings of the cult until its powers were stripped away at end of WWII, when it was banned from government affairs, school textbooks, etc. I had to show my wife that the Japanese government had always interfered in the freedom of religious practices. This included the banning of Buddhist faiths, and the genocide of Christians, which is addressed in Martin Scorsese’s latest movie, Silence. The Japanese government seized all properties which were not Shinto, and delicensed, and deloused temples and shrines under the guise of purification. Buddhist priests who refused to convert to Shinto were imprisoned, tortured and murdered. It must be noted that if Nippon Kaigi, and the LDP had their way, every Buddhist temple, every Christian church, even the Chabad Houses in Tokyo and Kyoto, would be banned, and their property seized, and turned over to operators of the Shinto cult.
When Shinto was reconstructed in 1868 the imperial legend was moved center stage, and Amaterasu who until then was only revered in parts of Japan was promoted as the most important of the gods, given a national role in the new system of state Shinto. This new status was intended to validate the role of the emperor, not only as ruler, but as the high priest of Shinto. This gave the emperor a divine right to rule not only Japan, but the whole world. Furthermore, it became official doctrine that since the Japanese were descended from the gods, they were superior to all other races.
The cult of Shinto continues to preach this hateful, unconstitutional, and illegitimate rhetoric. The Japanese people must condemn the teachings of the Shinto cult and the dark powers they wield over officials who have become drunk in priestly pretentions. The Japanese must ensure that the constitutional provisions that have given them freedom of religion, and thought for more than seventy years must continue provide them with the right to worship in any manner they choose, without being subjected to government interference, intimidation and control.
© 2017. All Rights Reserved.
ORIGINS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
I grew up in Miami, Florida. The city is a hodgepodge of communities that coexist, offering up a variety of cultural nuances, and exhilarating ethnic experiences. However, it’s also a tropical environment, and the high humidity can be a catalyst that causes temperatures to boil over. As a result of the sweltering heat that the city is famous for, rational processes often fail, and hostilities arise between one who perceives themselves to be an American, and another, most likely a Cuban, and who had probably lived in the city for a longer period of time. When the former found they were unable to express themselves, as they desired during one of these heated exchanges, they would often resort to intolerable obscenities, racist slurs, and almost always ended up commanding the latter to speak English!
I speak one of a vast array of dialects that has come to be recognized as the English language. But, what is this English language that I speak? What is its origin?
The language spoken two thousand years ago by those that dwelt in the land that’s known as Britain today wouldn’t be decipherable by contemporary English speakers. It would take another thousand years before the ever-evolving English language would become recognizable in today’s England, a land that received its name from the Saxon invaders. Today, what has developed into the English language has become the vernacular of the world. This is possible because the English language has the ability to absorb other languages almost seamlessly, and is amenable to nearly every other tongue in the world. The adaptability of this manner of speech has made the English language capable of producing new dialects, and new forms of expression that continue to evolve, all over the world.
What started as a guttural tribal dialect has become the language of more than one and a half billion people today. More people speak English than any other language on earth. Yet, the English tongue nearly became extinct on numerous occasions as successive invasions of the island nation not only added to its ever-expanding vocabulary, but also threatened to destroy it completely.
For three hundred years the English language would be forced underground. Nonetheless, it would emerge as the language of William Tyndale, the writer of a vast majority of the King James Bible, William Shakespeare, and William Wordsworth, the master of prose. Oddly, what is dubbed the “Queens” English today is in reality a language forbidden to the ruling classes for three centuries. It was the farmer, and the peasant that lived far from the courts, and the royal facades that kept the language alive. Against all likelihoods, the language of the English empire would eventually become the language of another powerful nation. America! English would also become the international language of business, and diplomacy, despite its rather humble beginnings.
Friesland is a province in northern Netherlands, which originally was part of an ancient region known as Frisia. The Friesland dialect is the closest relative of today’s English, which evolved some 1500 years ago. Words such as three, four, frost, freeze, mist, and blue originate from this region. Other words that began in the Germanic forms of languages include butter, bread, cheese, meal, boat, snow, see, and storm. The people who spoke these words lived in today what are known as Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.
Modern English can be traced back to the Germanic family of languages dating back to the 5th century. The Germanic people were nomadic, warlike tribes that moved throughout Europe a thousand years ago, and eventually settled upon what today is known as Holland, Denmark, and Germany. The original Germanic tribes consisted of Jutes, Anglo, and Saxons, and after mastering the art of fashioning together seaworthy vessels they sailed to the English shores in search of conquest, plunder, and to take advantage of abundant resources. However, the Germanic people weren’t the first to invade the shores of England. More than a thousand years earlier, the Romans invaded the land claiming it for Emperor Claudius, and to expand the Roman Empire. The Romans named this newly discovered land Britannia. Yet, when the empire crumbled, the native inhabitants, known as Celts at the time, were left to fend for themselves.
The Celts were subsequently conquered by the Germanic invaders, and were given the name Weelah (Welsh), which meant foreigner or slave. The only way the Welsh could gain in social status within these varying Germanic cultures was to assimilate into it. This meant the Welsh has to adopt the Germanic languages as their own. As a result, the Celt language became more, and more marginalized, and began to fade away almost entirely, as the language of the victors prevailed. Few Celtic words have survived into the modern English language. Among them are crag for rock, combe for valley, tor for peak, fortress, and the caer of Carlisle, which at the time meant a protected place. The Celts also left many names that remain to this day, including Thames, for the Thames River, London, and Dover.
By the 6th century Germanic tribes occupied much of the southeast, and about half of Britain as well. The tribes broke off into territories, Essex (east), Kent and Sussex (south), and Wessex (west). These regions would form Saxon tribes. In East Anglia, it would be the Saxon’s who bequeathed England with its name. East Anglia (the Anglos), territory included Mercia, and North Umbria. The “ing”, meaning, “the people of”, was used in these regions, and exists unto this day, such as in the towns of Reading, and Worthing. Other language examples that remain from this period include “ton”, which meant village. So today, Bridlington would mean, the people of the village of Bridl, or the people of the village of Chess, for Chessington. Birmingham today used to be known as Birmington. Another example of the language that survives today would be “ham”, which meant farm. So, today Birmingham would have meant, the farmers of Birm.
Each word you’re reading now is from Old English!
Hundreds of words used today in the English language originated around 1500 years ago. From all of those Germanic tongues, and all of their various dialects, a single language would begin to emerge. This emerging language would be known as Old English. And English speakers from all around the world speak Old English everyday. Samples include nouns, such as youth, son, daughter, field, friend, and home, prepositions, like, in, on, into, by, and from come from this time, participles a, and the, also originated from Old English. Our verbs, drink, come, go, sing, like, and love also can be traced to their origins in the Germanic languages. Today there are approximately 25,000 words that originate from Old English. This may seem marginal when compared to modern dictionaries that contain approximately 100,000 words. But, the average educated person today only has about 10,000 words in their vocabulary, and those ancient people didn’t have terms like hairdryer, television, computer, electricity, stationary, telephone, and technology to bolster their vocabulary.
Verbim: The Word
Tribal roots in the English language had already begun to fade with the revival of Christianity in England. In 597, Augustine led a mission from Rome to Kent, and around that same period Irish monks were establishing churches in the north of England. Within another century Christians were already building churches, and monasteries throughout the island. Christians (Catholics) also brought with them the international language of scholars, which was Latin. From this point on religious terminology would become permanently imbedded into the English language. Words such as apostle, altar, mass, monk, and verse became used in daily life. Absorbing words from other languages would become a pattern, as the English tongue would continue to evolve from a diversity sources.
The written form of the Jutes, Anglos, and Saxons would end up giving way to the Latin custom. Earlier written forms did not utilize script, as we know it today. The Jutes, Anglos, and Saxons used the runic alphabet, and symbols, which were formed mainly of straight lines, so that letters could be carved into stone or wood, as this was the medium to communicate at that time. Runes were mainly used for short practical messages. The Latin alphabet however, was different, as its curves, and bows allowed for words to easily be written on parchment or vellum using pen and ink. Pages could then be gathered into a book, and widely circulated to convey the writers intended message. It was Christianity that brought books to the English shores. Yet, the text of those books were written in Latin, and the common people could not decipher its meaning.
It wasn’t long before a native culture of scholarship began to flourish in the region. However, the written language would be based on Latin, and not on the ever-evolving language of the English speaking people. The famous Lindisfarne Gospels would be created on the island of Lindisfarne, which was just off of the northeast coast of England. A few miles south of Lindisfarne, at the monastery of St. Paul in Jaro, the European monk Bead, born, and educated in North Umbria, would begin documenting the first recorded history of the English speaking people. Although Bead wrote in Latin, which was the language of scholars at the time, the prevailing language of the land was still Old English. Beginning in the 7th Century, the English language was beginning to appear on parchment, and vellum as well. Thanks to the written form of expression the English language was now able to record a variety of subtle nuances, and express in great depth the human experience.
An Epic English Language Poem
Beowulf is the first great poem ever written in the English language. Its author remains unknown. This stylistic masterpiece was written between the 7th and 10th century, and celebrates the glory days of the Germanic warrior. The work was written in a traditionally oral form that would lend itself to other legendary English writings such as that of Shakespeare. The surprisingly extensive, and expressive language found in Beowulf leaves no doubt that even the earliest forms of English had the ability to utilize a wide variety of creativity, and expressionism. Beowulf contains around 40,000 words. English speakers today speak a less elaborate form than that found in the language of Beowulf. By this time, written English was already fully developed, and had become the perfect vehicle to express action, and descriptive speech. Writers were now capable of articulating great depth, detail, and subtle nuances due to the fusing of so many different languages. Around this same period, the Anglo Saxon Chronicles were also recording England’s historical events.
Invaders From The North
By the late 8th century, just as the English language began to evolve into an elaborate form of communication, a great destructive force from the north had already begun to lay siege. The Vikings had arrived, and sacked, and burned the religious centers that were recording the new English era. First to go was the religious center located on Lindisfarne Island. One year later the Vikings returned, and sacked the Abbey of Jaro, where the monk Bead had been the writer of one of the greatest libraries in English history. Bead was one of the scholars instrumental in writing in Latin, as well as English. Jaro was burned to the ground, and as at Lindisfarne, all its books were destroyed. For the next seventy years the Vikings ruthlessly attacked the eastern half of England. Few stories endure as to what had occurred because few survived the invasions to live, and tell about them. At first, the Vikings were content upon plundering the fortresses of their wealth, and returning home. But, in 865 the Vikings decided to annex East Anglia as well. Within five years the marauders, now known as Danes, controlled the entire north, and eastern part of the country. Of all of the early Anglo Saxon kingdoms only Wessex remained. Old Norse, the language of the conquerors was now spreading throughout the land. Old English now faced the same fate as the Celtic language it had supplanted, which was virtual extinction.
The English language needed a champion. It found one in King Alfred the Great. He would become known as the great defender of the English language. Alfred came to the throne within one year of the Danes numerous attacks on the northeast. In 878, the Danes defeated Alfred in a decisive battle that took place at Chipidome in Woocher. Alfred fled the battle with only a few surviving men. If Alfred’s kingdom fell, then the entire country would fall into the hands of the Danes, and be controlled, and settled by the conquerors that would inevitably crush the English language. His situation was desperate. Alfred began mounting guerilla warfare against the Danes, and in the spring of 878, he sent out a call for all inhabitants of the land to join him in a battle against the Danes. Four thousand men from Woocher, and Summerset would answer the call. The famous battle would result in the Danes being defeated, with the Danish king being baptized as a Christian. A peace treaty followed, and Alfred, and the Danes would divide the country into two regions, establishing a border that divided the land from the Thames to the north. The land to the north would be known as Danelagh, and it fell under Danish rule. The land to the south, and west was English territory ruled by Alfred.
Over the course of time the Danes, and English would trade in goods, and as a result, began to intermarry. Communities mixed, and so did the languages. The English began to absorb the Danish language, and culture. The extension, “by” had been the Danish name for farm. Today towns like Swanby, Runby, Faceby, and Kirkby, that had been vast farmland, still carry the same Danish names. Thorpe, meant “village”, and villages that grew into towns like Westhorpe still have their roots in Danish tradition. “Waite” is a section of land, such as in Huthwaite. “Son” was a Danish way of adding to the father’s name. Harrison, Robinson, Gibson, Simpson, and Watson are but a few examples. The Danish influence exists on many aspects of the English language, and culture even to this very day.
Old Norse remained in the dialect of some northeastern parts of England. Words such as beck (stream), and the sound “sk”, for sky began to appear in the English language. Other words that originated from the Danes include anger, knife, neck, root, scowl, and window. When the English, and the Danes had different words that meant the same thing, often both would survive such as in craft/skill, hide/skin, and sick/ill. These, and other foreign words were helping to build a powerful English vocabulary, and added to the richness of the language’s expression. Words like law, egg, husband, leg, ill, die, and ugly, are all from Old Norse. The pronouns they, their, and them are also Old Norse in origin. Even today, Old Norse affects the English language more than any other. Old Norse actually resulted in restructuring the way English speakers form sentences. Old English had no prepositions like “to.” Instead they added special endings, which meant the same thing. In English, gunum, meant (to man), and un (many), added to blanc (horse), blancun meant, many horses.
Through the great efforts of King Alfred, the English language survived, but the written form remained in a state of ruin. Written English had been on the decline ever since the early Viking raids. In his capital city of Winchester, Alfred began to promote literacy, and the restoration of the English tongue. “We should promote certain books for all men to know, into a language we can all understand. And also arrange it, if we have peace, so that all free men among the English people can devote themselves until the time when all men are able to read English writing well.” Alfred had five books of religion, history, and philosophy translated from Latin into English. Copies were sent to the twelve Bishops of his kingdom to be taught, and spread as widely as possible amongst the people. Alfred truly made the English language the jewel in his crown. King Alfred the Great died in 899, but at the time of his death, the English language had become more prestigious, and more widely read than ever before. Alfred’s legacy was to produce English text that could eventually be read by all who spoke the language.
By the mid 11th century English seemed secure as a language in both written, and spoken form, but the language itself was about to face its greatest threat yet.
The Battle Over Hastings. Painted by Philip James de Loutherbourg.
The Norman Invasion
The English king Edward the Confessor, spent many years in Normandy, and regarded William Duke of Normandy as his son. In 1066, Edward named William as his successor to the English throne. Harold, as Earl of Essex, the most powerful of the English lords was summoned to Normandy, where he was to pledge his loyalty to William. He did! However, when Edward was laid to rest, Harold had himself crowned as the king of England on the very same day of Edward’s death. William responded with a full invasion of England. The Norman, and English armies met near Hastings where a fight would ensue. Harold would fall, fatally pierced through the eye with an arrow. The site where the incident took place would be named with the French word battle. The Battle of Hastings! England had a new king, and a new language. Harold would be the last English-speaking king for three centuries.
On Christmas day in 1066, William was crowned king. Although his coronation was in English, and Latin, William spoke French throughout the entire proceeding. A new king, and a new language were in authority in England. Approximately ten thousand words of the Old French vocabulary would find their way into the English language. The Normans however, no longer spoke Old Norse. They spoke the language of what today is called Old French, which had its roots in Latin. Over time, many words that originated from Normandy would become unpleasantly familiar to the English.
French words became an integral part of the English language. Enemy, and castle would be new words added to the English language immediately. The French built many castles throughout the conquered land, and used them to impose Norman rule over the English-speaking people. By blood the Normans were the same as the Norsemen, who had invaded Lindisfarne, and Jaro centuries earlier, but the language had become very different. Old French, Norman words such as army, archer, soldier, guard, crown, thrown, court, Duke, Baron, nobility, peasant, servant, governor, liberty, authority, obedience, traitor, felony, warrant, arrest, judgment, jury, accused, acquit, sentence, condemn, prison, and jail were words that proved who was in authority over the land. Words such as city, market, salmon, mackerel, oysters, pork, sausage, bacon, fruit, olive, appetite, plate, mustard, salad and dinner, all Old French were absorbed into the English language as well.
The Norman takeover of the English was pervasive, and absolute. The native ruling class was slaughtered, banished, or disinherited. Half of England was now in the hands of one hundred, and ninety men. Only eleven of those held half of that, and not one of them spoke English. The writing of English became increasingly more rare. Even the writings of the Anglo Saxon Chronicles ceased to exist. In a country of three languages, English became the least communicated in any form. As the English language was forced underground, it would take another three hundred years for it to reemerge, and when it finally does, it changed dramatically from when Beowulf had been written.
The Normans took over power in every important aspect of English life especially in positions within the government, and the church. No longer were Englishmen Earls, Bishops, or Abbotts. The last recorded record of English writing during this period was in Peterborough Cathedral Abbey in the year, 1154. For the past six hundred years, the Anglo Saxon Chronicles were written in English, the language of the people. The Peterborough Chronicles would be the last official English text, recording that the new Bishop, was a Frenchman. These would be the last words written in the English language for the next three hundred years. Old English ceased to be the language of record throughout the land. Nevertheless, the spoken language remained the language of ninety percent of the people. Over time, the language became simpler. Plural forms were becoming more prevalent. Despite English being the officially ignored language, it was continuing to evolve and change, and would endure, resisting, and absorbing the invaders tongue, until it would someday become the prevalent language it is today.
New words began to pour into the English language. Words such as, honor, damsels, jousting, and tournaments were absorbed into the language through the French Court. The vocabulary of romance flourished in England. Eleanor, the French queen of England was considered the most cultured in all of Europe. She patronized the troubadours, and poets whose verses, and songs painted the romantic image of the middle ages. This would be known historically as the age of chivalry, but it was never realized outside the pages of literature. One hundred years earlier, chivalry meant something entirely different, it meant cavalry, as it was the warriors of the Normans that carried the day at the Battle of Hastings. Since then, the English considered the Normans as little more than thugs, and bullies, who ran the country by force, terror, and intimidation. But to the Normans, the mounted warriors became known as Knights, and chivalry represented a whole new paradigm of ideals, and behaviors. As a result, the English culture became infused with words, and concepts such as honor, and altruism. Ideas shifted, and words went with them. It was through Eleanor that the stories of Arthur, and his Knights made their way into history books, as the concept of French romanticism, cultivated the region, adding new words that were richer than those of the Normans who had invaded the northern region of the island. This new language would run through the sonnets, and poems of Shakespeare, and the pop songs of today’s hit singles, which have all, in some way, been inspired by Eleanor’s heart of the court of courtly love, and the imagery of fair cruel ladies.
It was William the Conqueror that introduced the system of feudalism to England, and along with it came words such as village, vassal, labor, and serfs. But, the French language did not trickle down to the common people. The native Englishmen were concerned with things related to their less than exalted condition. They sang of matters that related to their daily lives, and sang in their own tongue. English words like summer, sow, seed, spring, and wood sprang from Beowulf. Merry, sing, and loud, words authorized by Alfred remained as part of the language as well. In the country, where 95% of the people lived as serfs, tied to their lord’s land for life, at the subsistence level, lived in cottages, or huts, while their French masters lived in castles. The modern form of English still holds these distinctions. On the farm the English tended to cattle, and raised oxen, and cows, while the French dined on the preferred meats that came to their table. The French ate beef. The English used sheep, while the French dined on mutton. Calf was veal; deer was venison, and pig, pork. English animals were French meat in every case. The English labored as the French feasted. Apple in Old English meant any kind of fruit. The word fruit is introduced into the language, absorbed, and becomes a way of describing a variety of different foods. As a result, apple takes on the characteristic of describing a particular kind of food. English words begin taking on a more narrow meaning, giving the language more descriptive expressions, flexibility, and preciseness. Sadly though, after 150 years, the written form of English, which was the labor of Alfred, was all but dead. But, the balance of power within the languages was about to shift.
Where the French masters, and their English subjects lived together, the boundaries in language began to wither away. The court, and countryside began to mingle, as French words continued to enhance the English vocabulary. But, not the grammar as the Danes had. As trade grew so did the towns with London merging as the center of commerce. Its population doubled during the 13th century, and French craftsmen came to England from Normandy to ply their trade, as the city continued to expand. Feudalism began to loosen its grip. English speakers in masse migrated to the city, looking for opportunity, and a better life. Already established were the French court officials, administrators, lawyers, and merchants. Craftsmen gave French names to the tools of the trade including, measure, mallet, chisel, pulley, bucket, and trowel. As the population, and trade grew so too did the vocabulary. Business opportunity brought in new business oriented words such as, merchant, money, price, discount, bargain, contract, partner, and embezzle became part of the English language. The English didn’t just absorb the French vocabulary; they took their names from it as well. Then as now, names are taken out of fashion, and the fashion of the 13th century was French. French names like, Richard, Robert, Simon, Steven, John, Jeffrey, and the most popular William became the leading names of the English, as well as the French. With this much French influence, one would think the English language would be engulfed entirely, but that didn’t happen. Because of particular historical events, French speakers in English became cut off form their cultural, and linguistic roots.
In 1284, John, the reigning king of Normandy lost his land in a war with the much smaller kingdom of France. The Normandy Dukedoms, and ancestral lands of William the Conqueror became part of another empire. Many French Englishmen were cut off from their ancestral lands, and when they lost that contact, the ruling class began to lose connection with their homeland. Their identities began to change, and their language began to lose its grip on the French-English. French speakers, even from the noblest of families began to marry English wives. When they did, they married English speakers, and into the English language as well. Now, the French aristocrats children were learning English from mothers who spoke the language as their native tongue. As a result, children of Anglo-French families began to grow up bilingual. By 1250, many children were struggling to learn French from language instructors, as had to grapple with what was effectively a foreign tongue. Many French living within the English society were beginning to speak English as well. As Normandy became a foreign land, those with French blood, and French names began calling themselves trueborn Englishmen. The French language was becoming a foreign tongue even to the French, but its vocabulary was streaming into the English language. Words like attire, defend, figure, malady, music, person, sacrifice, scarlet, spy, stable, virtue, park, reign, beauty, clergy, cloak, country, food, and air all became part of the English language. The French court would introduce legal terms, such as plead, defend, and marshal while the religious order used clergy, and pillory. As trade with the east began to open, Arabic words also became part of the English language; words such as saffron, mattress, hazard, camphor, lute, amber, syrup, and alchemy were absorbed into English. The chess game term checkmate entered the English language from the Arabic word shazmat, meaning the king is dead.
Fine nuances became part of the language as well. Answer, and respond did not mean the same thing. Neither did, begin and commence, or liberty and freedom. As new words poured in, English words remained, steadfastly, adding to the richness of the language. Words like swan/signet, ax/hatchet, ask/demand, bit/morsel, wish/desire, might/power, room/chamber, on the surface appear similar, yet they began to represent shades of meaning, new thoughts, and expressive details, adding more precision, and flexibility, to the language, which allowed speakers, and writers to carefully choose the right world to express their desired form of communication. Rather than replace English, French was equipping the language with its ability to communicate more powerfully.
The old language was beginning to be revived, and by now was a rallying cry for a new people. Edward I of Scotland, a direct descendant of William the Conqueror, known as the hammer of the Scots, used the English language to unite the kingdom, when the French King Phillip threatened to invade England in 1295. Edward used the English language as a symbol of national unity to galvanize support. “If Phillip is able to do all the evil he means to, God protect us, he plans to wipe out our English language entirely from the earth.” The invasion of Phillip never came. Despite the threat of yet another invasion, Latin, and French remained the official language of those who governed the nation. As the 14th century approached English became the one language everyone knew, and used in their daily lives. Even the French troubadours were now singing in the English language.
By William of Nassyngton
In englysch tonge I schal you telle
Yif ye so longe with me wil dwelle
Ne latyn wil I speke ne waste
Bot englisch that men usen maste
For that is youre kynde langage
That ye have most here of usage
That kan eche man understonde
That is boren in engelonde
For that langage is most schewed
As wel among lered as lewed
Latyn as I trowe can nane
Bot thoo that have it at scole tane
Somme kan frensch and no latyn
That used have court and dwelled therin
And somme kan of latyn a party
That kan frensch ful febelly
And somme understonden englysch
That kan nouther latyn ne frensch
Bot lered and lewed olde and yonge
Alle understonden englysch tonge
The Great Pestilence: Black Death
It would be a rodent that gave the English language its greatest boost. In 1348, black rats began to arrive on the shores of England from France. They carried with them a deadly cargo. The disease became known as the great pestilence, or the Black Death. Black rats shed infected fleas that fed on their blood. This would then transmit the bubonic plague to humans who would likewise be bitten by the contagious fleas. An estimated one-third of England’s four million died from this terrible plague. In some places, entire communities were wiped out. This set into motion a social upheaval that aided in the restoration of the English language as the recognized language of the nation. At the local level, priests who performed mandatory services in Latin either caught the plague or ran away. Many of their replacements were laymen whose only language was English. They began to perform religious rituals, such as Masses, and baptisms in the English tongue.
After the Black Death, England became a very different country. In many places there was hardly anyone that could work the land, or tend to livestock. The acute shortage of labor meant those that did have the requisite skill, and who could perform the work suddenly had the power to demand better working, and living conditions, and higher wages as well. As wages rose, the price of property fell, and the fortunes of the common people began to rise. By 1385, English replaced French in the schoolrooms, and as literacy spread, so did the demand for books written in English. It was during this time that the English language would find its place in the state, and in the law. In 1362, for the first time in three hundred years, English was acknowledged as the official language of business, and the language of the state because too many lawyers, judges, and officials had died from the plague. As a result, cases could now be pleaded, defended, and judged in English. That same year Parliament opened in Westminster, and for the first time ever the Chancellor addressed the assembly, not in French, but in English. Soon English would become the language of the kings. Since 1066, during Harold’s brief stint, England had not had an English king. In 1399, Henry Duke of Lancaster deposed King Richard II. Henry Duke of Lancaster became known as Henry the 4th. He made his coronation speech in English. Once again, the English language was the royal language of England.
Catholic Control: The Dark Ages
The Catholic Church controlled all aspects of life. In the church, Latin was the spoken language, but nobody understood it except the church leaders themselves. When one went to church, and everybody did because it was compulsory, common prayers, the service, hymns, and everything else was spoken in Latin. Only the clergy were allowed to read the word, and they even did that silently. Absurdly, a bell would ring to let the congregation know when the priest reached the important parts. Although the masses were forced to attend church, they weren’t even allowed to know the words of the faith that was imposed upon them, under the threat of death. The authority of the Catholic Church sought to hold all power, and language was power, so it was vital that the clergy stood between the believer, and the Catholic bible, which was written in Latin. But, all of this nonsense was about to change dramatically.
In the 14th century, there was a movement that would tear the church in two. It would mark the end of the middles ages, and cost the lives of millions. This would be the battle for the language of the bible. The English wanted access to the language of the kingdom of heaven. They wanted a bible that belonged to them, and they wanted a religious teaching that was in their language. They were also willing to fight, and die for it. So, English set out to become the language of God. This struggle would be a violent one, as the lay demanded access to the bible in a tongue they understood.
John Wycliffe, a theologian, and philosopher was fluent in Latin. Wycliffe believed everyone should have access to the knowledge he held. The church in Wycliffe’s time was corrupt, and he was fiercely opposed to the power, and wealth of the church. “When men speak of the church they speak of priests, monks, bishops, friars, but it should not be so.” “Whether a hundred popes, and all the friars turned to cardinals, their opinions, and matters of faith should not be accepted except in so far as they are found on the scripture itself.” Wycliffe railed at the corruption, and complacency of the Catholic faith. Wycliffe believed man had the right tot examine the bible for himself. This meant an English bible that was unauthorized by the church. To the church this very thought (an opinion crime) was heretical, even seditious. Wycliffe set out to produce an English language bible. The work had to be done in secrecy. Its aim was to not only produce an English language bible, but to also overthrow, and end the reign of the Catholic Church. By 1380, Wycliffe had completed, and authorized the first English bible translated from Latin. The work was done at Oxford University, with numerous translators. Hundreds of English language bibles were copied by hand, and distributed throughout England. Today, one hundred, and seventy copies have survived, which means there must have been armies of faithful followers that believed in the cause who were secretly transcribing, and passing them on, knowing their discovery meant certain death.
Eventually, hundreds would be martyred as a result of Wycliffe’s English bible. But, many believed it was worth dying for, as it was “God’s” work that they were performing. Because of Wycliffe’s bible, many phrases made their way into the English language, and continue to this day. Some of those words, and phrases include, woe is me, an eye for an eye, barbarian, birthday, child bearing, cock crow, communication, crime, dishonor, envy, godly, graven, humanity, injury, jubilee, lecture, madness, mountainous, pollute, tramp, unfaithful, and zeal. These, and other words, and phrase first appeared in Wycliffe’s bible. In fact, there are more than one thousand Latin words that first appeared in Wycliffe’s bible, and those words would become a pertinent part of the English tongue. Other words from Wycliffe’s bible include, emperor, justice, city, cradle, suddenly, angel, multitude, and glory. Wycliffe’s bible immediately became the best selling, and most sought after literary work in the English language. The church immediately condemned it. “The jewel of the cleric is turned to the sport of the laity, and the pearl of the gospel is scattered abroad, and trampled under foot by swine.” Clearly, the Catholic Church thought of the English as nothing more than mere farm animals; chattel to labor for the churches coffers. By keeping the masses in the dark, regarding scriptural content, contradictions that existed between the Catholic Church, and the scripture could not be known. However, once the English bible became available, people began to question the churches doctrine, and authority, and the foreign faith that was imposed upon them. Moreover, the swine that the church spoke of were now becoming illiterate, and learned.
Wycliffe trained an order, and dispatched them throughout England. There purpose was to spread the word all across the land. They were determined to win the battle against the church, and preach against its corruption. They did this reading from Wycliffe’s bible. Those who read from Wycliffe’s bible became known as Lollards, which meant, the whisperers. The Lollard’s remained a secretive, but influential movement that was hated by the Catholic establishment. The Lollards went straight to the people, cutting out the middlemen. The following text is from the book of Mark, which Wycliffe had interpreted directly from the original Greek, and Hebrew:
Blessed be poor men in spirit, for the kingdom of heavens is theirs.
Blessed be mild men, for they shall wield the earth.
Blessed be they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.
Blessed be they that hunger, and thirst rightwiseness, for they shall be fulfilled.
Blessed be merciful men, for they shall get mercy.
On May 17th, 1382, a special organization of top Catholic Church leaders met to examine Wycliffe’s work. It was as much a show trial, as the Nuremberg trials held in Germany after WWII, as the conclusion was preordained. Wycliffe was condemned as a heretic. The Catholic Church ordered his arrest, and the arrest, and imprisonment of all of Wycliffe’s preachers. The church also secured a parliamentary ban on all of Wycliffe’s bibles. Wycliffe fell ill. The stress defeated him. He became paralyzed by a stroke, and would die two years later. Regardless, it was already too late for the corrupt church leaders, because after Wycliffe’s death, the movement continued, as the faithful avoided captivity, keeping their faith, and their English teachings alive. Wycliffe’s bible became a national political movement, and its cause was for the people to have an official English language bible.
The church was not satisfied with Wycliffe’s death. In 1414, the Catholic Church declared Wycliffe a heretic once again, and in the spring of 1428, his body was ordered exhumed, and posthumously burned. Wycliffe’s remains were burned near a tributary of the Avon River. His ashes were then scattered into it. Officially, the bible would remain in Latin, but a Lollard prophecy rang true:
The Avon to the Severn Runs
The Severn to the sea
And Wycliffe’s dust shall spread abroad
Wide as the waters be
The Church Of England
In 1417, King Henry V, began writing letters in English. His English letters started a movement to standardize spelling throughout the entire country, because each region spelled even the simplest of words differently. Take for example the word church, which could have been spelled sixteen different ways. The following are those different spelling forms, church, churche, cherche, chirche, church, chyrch, cherge, chyrche, kirk, kirke, kyrk, kyrke, kerk, kire, kerke, schyrche. The Chancellery was given the task to standardize spelling because it was crucial that all official documents that were written in London, could be read elsewhere. Because government documents had legal status, they had to be consistent. The Chancellery had the task to impose this new standard upon the entire nation. Congruency within the language became one of the nation’s top priorities. The Chancellery had to choose, which form of a word, and which spelling would become the standard. Thousands of documents were written, and sent all over the country explaining this new legal procedure. The language was becoming clearer, more modern, and congruent. I, (previously Iche) found its modern form. So did any, but, ought, and such. Lond became land, chirche (and the rest) became church, xal, and schal became shall. Rithe became right. Hath, and doth became has, and does. Everyone spelling words the same way doesn’t mean the language became logical though. Anyone trying to rationalize the English language text realizes immediately that the final determination is in reality not logical at all.
We’ll begin with a box, and the plural is boxes
But the plural of ox should be oxen, not oxes
Then one fowl is a goose, but two are called geese
Yet the plural of moose should never be meese
You may find a lone mouse or a whole nest of mice
But the plural of house is houses, not hice
If the plural of man is always called men
Why shouldn’t the plural of pan be called pen
The cow in the plural may be cows or kine
And the plural of vow is vows, never vine
If I speak of a foot and you show me your feet
And I give you a boot would a pair be called beet
If one is a tooth, and a whole set are teeth
Why shouldn’t the plural of booth be called beeth
If the singular’s this and the plural is these
Should the plural of kiss ever be keese
Then one may be that and three would be those
Yet hat in the plural would never be hose
We speak of a brother, and also of brethren
But though we say mother, we never say methren
Then the masculine pronouns are he, his and him
But imagine the feminine she, shis and shim
So the English, I think, you all will agree
Is the strangest of languages you ever will see
The Power Of The Press: Gutenberg Germany
The print medium gave writing its true power. The ability to print is the most technological seismic change western civilization has ever known. In 1435, printing was invented in Guttenberg, Germany. This would be the beginning of the information age. Print also made it hard to control the spread of ideas. As in England, where the Chancellery decided how words would be spelled, it would be the owners of the presses that determined what words would be used.
Early in the reign of Henry VIII, the king remained adamant on burning Wycliffe’s bible, and followers. Wycliffe’s bible was circulating relentlessly in hand copied form. The Catholic Church continued hunting down, and executing all books they alone considered heretical. It was during this time, an ordained priest, educated at Oxford, named William Tyndale began to preach against the Catholic Church. History was repeating itself. The presses would play a major role in bringing about a radical change in the English language, and what was to be read. When one cleric challenged Tyndale regarding his intention to make a new English language bible he responded, “I will cause a boy who drives a plow to know more of the scriptures that thou.” It would be Tyndale who finished the work that had begun with John Wycliffe.
William Tyndale: A Stranger In A Strange Land
In 1524, at the age of 29, William Tyndale left England. Unknown to him at the time, he would never return. He settled in Cologne, Germany, and began to work on translating the New Testament, not from Latin, but from the original text of Hebrew, and Greek. By 1526, six thousand copies had been printed, and were about to be smuggled into England. Henry VIII, and the Catholic Church were alerted, even terrified of this perceived threat. The nation’s entire political, and religious authority was put on alert. Naval ships patrolled the coastal waters, and searched boats for the latest heretical conspiracy against the church, and a great number of Tyndale’s books were intercepted. Nevertheless, hundreds of copies of the first run of Tyndale’s Bible would eventually make their way through. The king sought to purchase the entire print run so he could have them burned. “Oh, he will burn them”, Tyndale was known to have said. “Well, I am the gladder, for I shall get the money for these books, and the whole world will cry out for the burning of God’s word.” The books were purchased, and burnt. Tyndale would use the proceeds to prepare, and print a better version of his bible, and all at the church’s expense. Tyndale’s work would later become 85% of the King James Bible, and native English language speakers all use Tyndale’s words, and phrases unto this very today. Words, and phrases such as, scapegoat, let there be light, the powers that be, filthy lucre, my brother’s keeper, fight the good fight, flowing with milk and honey, sick unto death, a man after my own heart, signs of the times, the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak, ye of little faith, eat drink and be merry, broken hearted, clear eyed, and hundreds of other phrases, and idioms are accredited to Tyndale. Words like, beautiful, fishermen, stumbling block, two-edged viper, Jehovah, and Passover also come to the English language through Tyndale. Tyndale’s language not only refined the English speaker regarding their external experiences, they also taught them how to communicate concerning their internal condition.
Before long there were thousands of copies of Tyndale’s Bible in England. These new bibles were produced in pocket-sized books and were easily concealed. He passed them on to city officials, and universities, even to young boys who plowed the fields. The authorities, especially Thomas Moore railed against Tyndale’s work. But, it was too late, the damage to the Catholic Church was done. The English had their bible. Tyndale, of course, was condemned as a heretic, and the hunt for him continued until 1535 when two hired assassins trapped Tyndale in Antwerp. Tyndale was captured, kidnapped, and smuggled out of the city, and taken to Vilvoorde Castle near Brussels, where he was imprisoned and tortured extensively. In his last letter, Tyndale asked, “That I might have a warmer cup, for I suffer greatly from the cold. A warmer coat also, for what I have is very thin. A piece of clothe for which to patch my leggings, and I ask to be allowed to have a lamp in the evening for it is wearisome to sit alone in the dark. But, most of all, I beg and beseech your clemency that the commissary will permit me to have my Hebrew bible, my grammar, and my dictionary, so that I might continue with my work.” Tyndale did continue to work, his work would also give the English language phrases such as, a prophet has no honor in his own country, a stranger in a strange land, a law unto themselves, and, let my people go.
In August, of 1536, Tyndale was found guilty of heresy by an inquisitional court in the Netherlands, and as was the case with John Wycliffe, the determination was already predetermined. On October 6th, Tyndale was tortured yet again, strangled while tied to a stake, and burned. His last words would be, “Lord, open the king of England’s eyes.” Within one year the Catholic Church would be ousted from England, and Tyndale’s bible placed in every parish throughout the land. The ousting of the church wasn’t based on corruption, or even morality. It would be based on a king who sought the annulment of his marriage. A decision the Catholic Church wasn’t willing to make.
The Pope’s refusal to grant Henry VIII a divorce from Catherine of Aragon led to a confrontation with the Catholic Church. Suddenly, Henry VIII objected to Catholic rule. Precipitously, scripture became more important to the king than Catholic authority. As well, Thomas Moore would be executed for refusing to a meeting of the minds with the king. King Henry’s new advisors, Thomas Cromwell, and Thomas Cranmer, pushed for ecclesiastic reform. The split with the Catholic Church also meant a split from Rome. The English reformation was now in its infancy. The English language would now become the language of the court, the language of literature, and now the language of religion. Ironically, at the time of Tyndale’s martyrdom, Henry had authorized the first legal English bible, the Coverdale Bible. Soon there would be so many competing versions of the bible that King James of Scotland would order a standardized version, which today is known as the King James Bible, completed in 1611. The interpreters of the King James Bible reviewed all of the competing versions, but it would be William Tyndale’s Bible that made up the majority of the English text. In fact, 85% of the King James Bible is in reality, Tyndale’s work.
Henry The Eighth And His Many Wives
Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, who had previously been married to the king’s brother Arthur. Arthur had been the original heir to the throne. Henry, and Catherine’s first son died, and a series of miscarriages followed. Catherine therefore failed to produce an heir to the throne. Henry being much younger watched as his wife became bloated as a result of numerous pregnancies. The marriage however was able to produce a daughter. Mary! Catherine, being of Spanish blood was a devote Catholic, as her daughter would grow to be. During Henry’s reign, Thomas Woolsey was the churches supreme leader. Woolsey rose from a butcher’s son to the hold the highest position in the Church of England. Woolsey would be the architect of Henry’s victories in the French campaigns, known as the Battle of the Spurs. Henry took control of two French cities at that time. Also, during this time, in Germany, Martin Luther had risen in power, and began condemning the corruption of the Catholic Church.
Henry was adamant to defend Rome, and won the title of Defender of the Faith when he wrote his book, In Defense of the Seven Sacraments. This was the first book written by a king since Alfred. Thomas Moore, a friend who held great sway over Henry requested Henry to take a more moderate stance on religion. The king steadfastly refused. King Henry would eventually fall for the sister of one of his mistresses, Anne Boleyn. Anne refused Henry sexual relations, only unless he agreed to marry her. The difficulty was that he was already married, and Catherine refused to grant a divorce. So, Henry, and Anne began searching for a legal loophole to resolve the marriage. Their best hope laid in the bible. The book of Leviticus forbade a man to marry his dead brother’s wife. Henry argued that when Rome permitted his marriage to Catherine, the Pope exceeded his power, and the marriage was therefore invalid. That matter was then turned over for disposition to the man who was both the Pope’s representative in England, and Henry’s own chief minister, Cardinal Woolsey.
On May 17th 1527, the first trial of the marriage of Henry the VIII began. It was a secret trial, as Catherine had no knowledge about the proceedings. All were confident that Woolsey would rule the marriage invalid. To everyone’s surprise, on May 31st, Woolsey adjourned the court indefinitely on grounds of the difficulty of the case. Woolsey defied the king who felt betrayed. The fact is that matters in Rome at that very time made it impossible for the Pope to rule in favor of Henry. The troops of Charles V had sacked Rome, and pillaged the city. The Pope was driven out of the city, and sought refuge at Castel St. Angelo, which was the property of Catherine’s nephew. While the Pope waited in exile at the Castel St. Angelo, Henry’s desire to receive an annulment was quashed.
Henry, and Anne had hoped for a quick marriage, but the matter had stretched into years. In the second divorce trial held in 1529, Henry’s patience was at an end. Woolsey knew his power, and life was at stake. He wrote Henry’s case, in his own hand, “never rising to eat or even piss” according to his valet. But, not even the Cardinal of England had the power to sway Europe’s political powers at that time. Given the condition of the Pope, Woolsey was unable to persuade the Pope to grant Henry, and Catherine’s annulment. Woolsey would lose his position, power, and prestige, and shortly thereafter died, but not before cursing Anne, and blaming her for his swift downfall. Woolsey predicted the downfall of the Catholic Church as well.
Anne, a sympathizer of Luther, encouraged Henry to turn to Rome’s English opponents for guidance, and that led to a meeting with Thomas Cranmer of Canterbury. Henry was told that he had been going about the divorce proceeding the wrong way. Cranmer said he had been treating it as a legal matter, but it wasn’t, according to Cranmer, it was a moral one. Cranmer said the bible supplied absolute answers as to what was right, and what was wrong. Cranmer suggested Henry seek the knowledge of theological experts to get his answer, which all of Rome, as well as the Pope would have to recognize. Experts gathered at Cambridge, and delivered the verdict Henry desired. Henry’s envoy was then sent to pit the argument against the authority of the Pope. The entire power of the Tutor state bribed, and bullied the European universities to rule in favor of Henry. But, Catherine wasn’t without her own defenders. One of them was Thomas Able, her personal minister. Henry sent Able on a mission to Catherine’s nephew, but Able acted as a double agent. Outwardly, he was working for Henry’s cause, but secretly he was undermining the king’s strategy, on Catherine’s behalf. When Able returned to England, he became Catherine’s outspoken propagandist. He wrote, Invicta Veritas, which attacked the verdict of the university scholars. Henry read the book, and was furious, he wrote, “The whole basis of this book is false. Therefore, the Papal authority is empty save in its own seat.” Despite this, Able continued to rail against the king. This led to Able being arrested, and imprisonment in the tower twice. Able would subsequently be executed as a traitor to England in 1540.
Henry being king, and emperor of England felt he was subject to no authority on earth. Not even that of the Pope. Henry, once the stoutest of proponents of papal authority, turned his back on the church, all because of the matter of a divorce. Henry held that the truth was not found in Rome, but in the words of the bible itself. Those same words that the church had tried so desperately hide from the English people.
The Pope’s interest in preserving his own position, and the five years delay in obtaining a divorce had taken its toll. The church was now Henry’s enemy, and what stood between him, and Anne. Henry argued that there were no Popes in scripture, but there were plenty of kings. Cranmer also argued that it was kings who were God’s anointed. Henry’s wrath against the Catholic Church would transform the monarchy from that point on, and forever. On January 19th 1531, the Archbishop of Canterbury proposed that Henry should be the head of the Church of England. The announcement was met by a stunned silence. The Archbishop took it to mean consent. Henry was now head of the Church of England. By becoming the head of the English Church, Henry broke Magna Carta, the first clause of his coronation, which was his allegiance, and devotion to the Catholic faith. Henry, still married to Catherine became a bigamist. In December of 1532, Anne became pregnant, and in January of 1533, Henry, and Anne married. The following month Cranmer was made Archbishop of Canterbury, and declared Henry’s marriage to Catherine unlawful. Charles V of Spain became furious upon learning of the announcement, and the Pope excommunicated Henry.
Henry’s old friend and counselor, Thomas Moore, warned him regarding his defiance to the church. Laws now required opponents to swear a double oath, to accept the kings second marriage, and to object to Papal supremacy. To refuse the oath meant treason to England, and certain death. Moore refused the oath, and was imprisoned for more than a year at the tower. At his trial, Moore said he could not be guilty because the English Parliament did not have the power to make Henry the supreme leader of the church. Moore argued that all of Christianity had given that authority to the Pope, and had done so for more than a thousand years. The law chief justice responded, “English law was whatever English Parliament said it was.” Moore was condemned, and beheaded on July 6th, 1535. Working with Parliament, instead of against it, as his father had, worked in Henry’s favor. In 1536, the monasteries were plundered of their wealth, and dissolved under the guise of reform. Henry would then face the greatest threat to his power, known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. By 1540, the last standing Abbey was gone. This provoked shock, outrage, and open revolt. The largest army England had ever seen, since the Battle of the Roses, some thirty thousand with twelve thousand reserves marched toward London from the North. They were prepared for war. Henry only had eight thousand men. Wisely, he chose to negotiate a deal. Henry also offered pardons to all, and the revolt dispersed. A few months later Henry broke his promise, and exacted revenge. The leaders of the revolt were arrested, and sent to London. The trial was especially harsh on the clerics, even those who were coerced into joining the revolt. Many religious leaders were drawn and quartered, or hanged. Henry’s church, which condemned Rome for all its barbarity was now the new form of tyranny, and terror.
Anne was unable to produce a male heir to Henry’s throne. After only three years of marriage, she was executed on trumped up charges of adultery, incest, and sexual perversion. Anne’s real crime however, was that she failed to produce a male heir. Henry soon married Jane Seymour who produced a male heir, Edward. However, Jane would die shortly after giving birth to Edward. Henry’s two disputed marriages, and the lack of a male heir were now resolved. Edward succeeded Henry in 1547. Edward then removed his half sister Mary from succession because of her staunch Catholic religious faith. On Edward’s deathbed, Lady Jane Grey was named queen of England. Mary formed an army based out of East Anglia, and backed by the Catholic Church, and successfully deposed Jane, who was subsequently beheaded. In 1554, Mary married Phillip of Spain, and thereby began the 4th Tutor dynasty. Mary restored Catholicism to England, and during her five-year reign, executed more than two hundred and eighty protestant dissenters, who were burnt at the stake. Upon her death, Mary’s half sister, and successor Elizabeth returned England to Protestantism.
John Locke’s, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding was a conceptual work where Locke believed that if a definition of all words could be agreed upon, this would bring an absolute understanding between nations, and as a result, peace would prevail, and wars would be avoided. “Dispute would end of themselves.” Locked also believed that a uniformity of language would lead to pure reasoning. Latin remained understood as the international language of scholarly work, and regarded as the only precise way of communicating science, and other serious works. Members of the Royal Society wanted to make England the language for scholars. In 1687, Isaac Newton published his first work, Principia Mathematica, which was published in Latin. But, his next work, Opticks, published in 1704, was written in England. Newton gave the English language new terms such as flexibility, and other terms began to take on new meaning, transmission became, passing through a medium, opaque had meant unlit, but now was understood for not allowing the passage of light. Newton also gave us indistinctness, and well defined. English scholars by now were redefining the meaning of many English words.
For the first time, daily newspapers began to circulate. Articles were short, and concise. The work of Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, was becoming difficult to understand, even tedious to read. Jonathan Swift, the writer of the fictional travel diaries known as, Gulliver’s Travels, written under the name Lemuel Gulliver, (a surgeon and captain), criticized the changes to the written form of English. Swift argued the new terms could hardly be understood unless one had access to an interpreter. Swift hated “the vulgar liberties” the English scholars were having with the English language. Modern scholars had also begun to shorten words, and this shortening was considered crude. Examples include, mob, from a French word that was shortened to mean common people. Swift also hated modal words such as, bully, banter, shuffling, cutting, and sham. Swift said Latin, and Greek had survived because they never changed. Swift said he would save the English language by “putting an end to changes.” He wanted to take control of the language, and to take it away from the “anarchy” of the class bloods, and their slang. In 1712, Swift proposed the foundation of an academy, for ascertaining, improving and preserving the English tongue. This new form of academia was to replace the “bastardization” of the language the aristocracy was responsible for. Swift took his case to Queen Anne, however she died shortly thereafter, and George III, took her place. George III was a German king who spoke little English, and cared about the matter even less. Swift’s plans died a miserable, and humiliating death. Dr. Samuel Johnson, an effortless eccentric would become the English language’s next champion.
Samuel Johnson took seven years to put 43,000 words, and definitions, etymology, and quotations into a dictionary. He confessed to omitting words he didn’t understand, “Many terms of art, manufacturing, and trade were omitted. But, for this deficit, may I boldly allege it was unavoidable. I could not visit caverns to learn the miner’s language, nor take a voyage to perfect my skill in the dialect of navigation.” Johnson’s dictionary is lacking in the language of law, medicine, and the physical sciences. He left out rude words, and when two society ladies asked him why, he responded, “What my dears? Have you been looking for them?” In 1755, Johnson’s dictionary was finally published in two volumes. This dictionary, with all its omissions gave a sense of national pride. For it was not put together by a French committee, but was the efforts of one man alone, an Englishman. One inclusion into Johnson’s dictionary is the word, Tarantula, which described the creature as, “an insect whose bite is cured only by music.” Johnson also defined his trade as a, lexicographer, “a writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge.” Today the dictionary is still read, and enjoyed in all its eccentricity, and antiquated glory. Despite the humor attached to some of the definitions, like the examples given above, Johnson’s goal was to fix the pronunciation of words in the English language. But, by the time he finished his work, Johnson was convinced that no dictionary could pin the language down.
The printed form of English was being regarded as the correct way to speak the English language. But, what did the written English sound like, and who decided? One idea was that all the letters that were written should be spoken. This was to help in how to pronounce vowels. But, what of the many English inconsistencies in the written form? Truly, the English language is a nightmare. There are at least seven ways to pronounce the vowel, e. Free, these, leaf, field, seize, key, machine. The four letters ough, have six different sounds, cough, though, through, thorough, bough, thought. Johnson omitted pronunciations from his dictionary stating, “Trying to fix it was like trying to lash the wind.”
The Select Society held. “Pronunciation is proof someone has kept good company.” Thomas Sheridan believed his new book would teach everyone how to speak the same, and make everyone equal. That didn’t happen. His book divided people’s, especially the Scotts who were made to feel their dialect was inferior. Robert Burns would be the bearer of the Scot standard. Born in 1759, to a poor farming family, Burns worked as a plowboy until he was 15. It’s said he loved women, Scotch, and Scots. His first publication was a collection of poems, Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect. Burns made the Scots proud of their own language. Burns died at 37, but he left four hundred songs, and other admired Scottish works.
Prose And Cons
William Wordsworth, an ordinary man wrote, Lyrical Ballads And A Few Other Poems. He said, “Poetry should be written in the language really used by men.” Wordsworth lived in the same manner that he wrote. He planted his garden using wildflowers, instead of the cultivated hybrids of the upper class. It was much the same with the language of his verse; the natural variety that men used in their daily lives. Wordsworth warned that readers who were used to gaudiness, and inane phraseology, of many modern writers would perhaps have to struggle with reading his works. For daring to write poetry in the language of the ordinary person, Wordsworth was reviled by the critics, and contemporary poets. Thomas Paine’s, The Rights Of Man, was written in the plain language of the common people, as well as, Answer’s to Mr. Burke’s Attack on the French Revolution. Today it’s hard to imagine a world of art without the likes of Paine, Wordsworth, and their predecessors. Wordsworth gave a lasting legacy to the language of ordinary speech. Despite this, among the privileged, and “educated”, how one spoke was a key to their social status.
Jan Austin wrote novels that were aimed at the woman reader. Her subjects were always a well off businessman in search of a wife who had the same social status. Her works carried with it the concept that, if certain words were removed, the thought regarding those words follow. For the male penis she used terms, such as: tailpipe, Pilgrim’s shaft, silent flute, pike of pleasure, mutton dagger, cupids torch, chink stopper, Nimrod the mighty hunter, his majesty in purple cap, pick lock, pump handle, pleasure pivot, dear morsel, and Dr. Johnson, “because there was no one that he wasn’t prepared to stand up to.” Trade terms had no place in the works of Austin. But, those terms were about to reinvigorate the English language once again.
The Industrial Revolution
In 1851, an exhibition held at the Crystal Palace in London, displayed manufactured a plethora of goods, and inventions from the modern industrial world. For the first time ever, every conceivable device was on display. This era of industrialization also ushered in, and introduced new words into the English vocabulary. Those trade words included, hydraulic power, centrifuge pump, lithograph, electro-plating, dynamo graph, and anhydrohepsetarion. Craftsmen, usually watchmakers brought word of their trade into common language as well, wheels, pins teeth, and horsepower the new standard of energy output. New words that originated from Greek, and Latin were absorbed into the new world, which was now the leader in science, and technology such as: biology, petrology, taxonomy, morphology, paleontology, ethnology, gynecology, histology, agronomy, phytology, and entomology. Engine in the middle ages meant skill or talent. It would change to mean machine, or weapon, and again to mean motor, or locomotive. The world was moving on, and taking with it many words. The word industry itself moved away from initially meaning, individual ideals, to large factories or mills, which had originally been trading post. Now, factories were something that churned out products en masse. Words like labor, capital, and industry were not just changes in meaning, but also changed the way people lived. Untold millions would learn new words, from the slang of the poor, including slum. The economic miracle of the industrial revolution was also a curse with large-scale squalor, and poverty on every corner, never before seen in any society considered civil. English was using new words to describe social standing. Status, or rank changed to class. The slum was the realm of the working class, the lower class.
In the late 16th century, the language police sneered at urban dialect, such as Cockney, which was regarded as the speech of the “vulgar provincialists from metropolis”, or “a speech that lacked literary propriety.” The journalist, Henry Mayhew writings would change all of this when the Cockney rhyme eventually gave the street language the cherished characteristic it still enjoys today. Slang means street language. It’s code speech. A way a group speaks to itself, without being understood by the rest of society. Marie Lloyd, was reviled for using the following line, “She sits among the cabbages, and peas.” Lloyd then changed the words to, “She sits among the cabbages, and leeks.” Speech was changing; people were changing, their speech was designed to hide its true meaning, behind masks of respectability. Charles Dodson, who wrote under the pen name of Lewis Carroll, invented the fictional character of Humpty Dumpty, “When I use a word it means just what I choose it to mean.” In 1871, Dodson wrote, Alice In Wonderland, Through The looking Glass. He then took the written form of the English language into a new realm, with his poem, Jabberwocky, which was considered intellectual nonsense. Dodson once said, “A word means what the writer intends it to mean, and what the hearer understands it to mean, and that is all.”
Pygmalion, a work of Bernard Shaw, is the story of a Cockney girl who’s coached how to speak “properly”, like an upper class lady. Shaw intended to show that there was no magic in this perceived “good speech.” At the time Shaw broke one of the cardinal rules of polite society, which was to never use a certain word on stage. That word was “bloody.” The use of this word brought outrage at the time, but that outrage would soon fade, as the outbreak of WWI would bring about the long decline of social order, an order based merely on language, and speech. From this time on, no longer would one be considered a better person simply based on the manner of their speech. WWII would follow, and the new mediums of radio, and television brought the realities of the horrors of war right into the living room of every home. Soon the Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis, and Vietnam were to follow, and terms like, communism, red scare, cold war, and nuclear bombs were added to the vocabulary of anyone that spoke the English language. People could now sit in the comfort of their own home, in their favorite reclining chair, while eating a bowl of vanilla ice cream, and partake in the ritual of becoming desensitized to the realities of the new world that surrounded them. Next it would be Palestine, the Gulf War, Iraq, Afghanistan, and the “terrorist”, both theirs, and ours, as the high-speed “information age” ran so fast at us that everything had to be abbreviated. 911, and WMDs are phrases that were intended to put us in such a perplexed state of fear that nearly everyone was ready to give up all their freedom in order to keep their liberty. Soon, “smart devices” came along, and anyone that had learned to type at 60WPM, could suddenly express themselves while clumsily typing on a keypad the size of a thimble with only their thumbs. CUL8TR, LMAO, and OMG will no doubt become dictionary entries, if they haven’t already, in this age of de-evolution. No longer would one have to leave their desk to communicate to another warm body. One can now LOL while the entity on the receiving end contemplates whether it was a statement of mockery, “laughing out loud”, or sending “lots of love their way.”
This new era, this “information age” is in reality anything but that, as how much accurate information one is allowed access to is controlled by those who own the airwaves, the television networks, cable networks, magazines, newspapers, marketing, and PR firms. I think you get the picture. I hope you do!
As much as the English language has grown, absorbed, and expanded in this age of talking heads, visual manipulation, enhanced audio, and double spin, all of this in reality is designed to bombard the senses with senselessness, and mystify the bovine masses with a sophisticated form of controlling the way we perceive, and react to intentionally illusory contrivances. The age of technology, and a refined, and well-crafted form of propaganda has arrived. It too has brought the English language a myriad of cryptic terminology. But… who cares? Let’s go shopping!
I’ve heard it said that journalism is a form of communication that is untrue, unreadable, paid for, “fake” and intentionally misleading. On the other hand, I’ve also heard that literature is expressive, stylized, and dynamic, yet, it is seldom read, and even less understood. What is communication? What is language?
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When World’s Collide: Art And Tragedy
Sendai Route 10. Train And Missing Children. Photo Stack Jones.
While preparing a photo gallery for the anniversary of Japan’s 3.11.11. triple disaster I began to wonder if it was ethical to turn a tragedy, suffered by so many, into a personal form of artistic expression. To answer this, I needed a clear understanding of what art, and ethics actually are. While researching these terms, I would also discover the concept often described as “truth”, would be equally important in making a determination as to what art, and ethics are.
Ethics is often described as a moral belief system that guides the actions of an individual or group. Truth! The Oxford Dictionary defines as “the quality or state of being true.” Well, that designation was as useless as faithfulness, and constancy. The Catholic Church sent Galileo into exile to Siena on the churches determination that the world was flat. Historical records more often than not are consistent in putting forth falsehoods as facts. Even Pilate while having the power to free or execute Jesus pondered, “What is truth?” Art, as it turns out is even more difficult to define than either of the former.
Modernly, art originates in a vast array of forms including music, literature, poetry, film, fashion, architect, and photography. In ancient times, the creators of art didn’t have access to the technological advances we take for granted today. Those creators didn’t have the ability to produce copies of their intellectual property, and as a result had no means to distribute it. Those ancient masters of expression developed real time means of sharing their ideas through various forms of communication. Useful forms included illustrations, painting, sculpting and music as a means to express those ideas. Unfortunately, often those expressions were not those of the artist, but of those who held power over them. Most notably religious, and political powers!
Hugh MacLeod wrote art suffers the moment others start paying for it. Historically, an artist paid with their life if they portrayed an image, even a chord structure in a manner that the powers interpreted as a challenge to their authority. Modernly, once an artist is paid for their creation, they almost always lose the right to control the final product. Remember Gandhi appearing in Apple Computer advertisements that shamefully shouted “Think Different”? In reality, those images were of Gandhi on a hunger strike protesting British control of India. Apple, only interested in selling computers, gave no thought to the activist’s message. Clearly, one who retains the rights to a creative work can manipulate not only that image, but the content of that original image as well.
When money interferes with the creative process can that labor still be considered a work of art? If the creative process has been tampered with can it truly be considered a work of art? Bob Dylan, in his essay, Last Thoughts On Woody Guthrie summed it up:
“And you can’t find it either in the no-talent fools that run around gallant and make all rules for the ones that got talent. And it ain’t in the ones that ain’t got any talent but think they do and think they’re foolin’ you. The ones who jump on the wagon just for a while ’cause they know it’s in style. To get their kicks, get out of it quick and make all kinds of money and chicks.”
Perhaps Prince said it best, “Let the baker bake the bread.”
When a photographer cleans up an image, or enhances features within that image with a program like Adobe Photoshop, does that new creation represent what had originally been captured? Is it the “captured” image that matters, or what the photographer later settles upon as a final work through the creative process? I’ve spent countless hours removing plastic bags, digital blowouts, white distortion, logos, and even people from an image. Did this manipulation destroy the “art” that existed prior to manipulation? Or did it become art the moment the manipulator considered it complete? Finally, is it the creator that determines if it is art or the audience that it was intended for?
Friedrich Nietzsche said, “We have our arts so we won’t die of truth.” André Gide said, “Art begins at the point where resistance is overcome. No human masterpiece has ever been created without great labor.” What is therefore art? The final product, or the work involved in obtaining that end? Perhaps art is the creative process itself? A creation shared by both the artist and the audience.
Body bagged Minnie. Where’s Mickey? Photo Stack Jones.
When I was an artist agent in Hollywood, I represented scores of amazing talent. One of my daily duties was to meet with artists who were seeking representation. I looked at thousands of portfolios, and often visited graduate school “art” exhibits. I rarely came across something that moved me. If it doesn’t move us is it art?
One artist I eventually represented sent me an image of a box that looked like a stack of old eight track tapes. I deleted that representation query upon receipt. I received it again. I deleted it again. I received it a third time, and due to the tenacity of the artist, I took a closer look, and it turned out to be a Rhino Records, commemorative CD case of several Motown greatest hits that had been released during the eight track tape era. It won a Grammy Award for best packaging design!
If it offends is it art? U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart used a threshold test for obscenity in Jacobellis vs. Ohio (1964). The test was first used in Miller vs. California (1973) where the court held that obscenity could be censored. Jacobellis, the manager of a theater had been convicted, and fined $2500.00 for screening a French film titled, The Lovers. The state of Ohio considered it obscene. The three-prong test used considered: 1. Whether an average person, applying contemporary community standards would find the work, taken as a whole, prurient. 2. Whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law. 3. Whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. Justice Stewart viewed the film and determined it was not obscene. In the courts majority opinion Stewart wrote, “The Constitution protected all obscenity except hard-core pornography. Stewart wrote, “I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced within that shorthand description; and perhaps I could never succeed in intelligibly doing so. But I know it when I see it, and the motion picture involved in this case is not that.”
So, if we can determine obscenity, or something that offends by simply, “knowing it when we see it”, then perhaps we can understand what art is simply by recognizing it when we see it. The problem here is that today we’re surrounded by “art”, actually bombarded with it as a sales tool, and as a result, we take it for granted. We’ve become blind, numb, or even cynical toward creative work. This is truly tragic. Or is it?
Greek philosopher Sophocles wrote Oedipus Rex, an ancient Athenian tragedy that tells the story of a man who was foreordained to become the king of Thebes. This right obtained through birth led to the murder of Oedipus’ father, and eventually marriage to his own mother. The focus on this tragedy is how destiny contributed to Oedipus’ downfall. Would this classic tale have been considered obscene, and therefore not a protected work of art if the Miller Test had been used during that time? How about the contemporary standards as applied in countries like Saudi Arabia today?
Art in tragedy existed long before modern man walked the face of the earth. The earliest known paintings are petroglyphs that were discovered in Australia, and are approximately 50,000 years old. The most notable original art was discovered in northern Spain and southern France. These cave paintings date back to approximately 15,000 years ago.
In the Lascaux caves, the artist used animal bones and stones to ground earth pigments in hollows on the floor. The clays were then mixed with water, albumen, animal fat and blood to create complex paints. The paints were then applied with chewed ends of twigs, feathers and animal hair, or smeared and dabbed using the hands and pads from mosses and lichen. They were also applied by blowing paint through reeds and hollow bones. Those people traveled great distances to collect the material necessary to create those works, thus putting their life in peril. One can only conclude that expressing thought through painting must have been extremely important to those early earth dwellers. They not only painted the walls and ceilings of caves, but also their tools, clothing and bodies.
There are several theories as to why so much time and energy was expended to create early forms of art. One emphasizes pleasure, and story telling. Another is based on the belief that painting a picture of a successful hunt would help to achieve it. Yet, another is artistic symbolism that represented things that were unfamiliar, had mystical powers, and were difficult to communicate to others.
Sendai. Natorigawa. If one made it to the bridge they survived. If not… Photo Stack Jones.
What is truth? Ernest Hemingway, John Lennon and Bruce Lee had one thing in common. All of them were atheists. Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed had one thing in common. They were not!
Today, what is truth to an Israeli is a fairytale to the Palestinians. What’s truth to a protestant is heresy to a Catholic. Writers of the Talmud sentenced Jesus to an eternal vat of boiling excrement. Likewise, Jesus placed his enemies into an eternal lake of fire. Historical revisionists are ridiculed for demanding educational institutions “rewrite” history in an accurate manner, based on fact, not in the perspective of those that have the most to gain financially, religiously, or politically. On the other hand institutions that make billions by continuing to promote historical fabrications are strictly opposed to change. One thing is certain… If there isn’t a whole lot of truth to be told, there certainly is a lot of creative license regarding it.
Is it possible for art to accurately depict truth? Do movies accurately represent the best-selling book the film had been derived from? Does a documentary film accurately depict opposing arguments of a dispute? No! They’re skewed to the perspective the writer/director wants to convey to the audience, or that of the financial entity producing that work.
In an essay by Leo Tolstoy titled, What Is Art, Tolstoy argued against aesthetic theories that define art in terms of good, truth, and beauty. In Tolstoy’s opinion, art was corrupt and decadent, and intellectuals misled the artist who sought their finance, favor and social status.
According to Tolstoy, art must create an emotional bond between the artist and the audience. Tolstoy believed art embraces any human activity. Tolstoy offers as an example, a boy who experienced fear after an encounter with a wolf. He later relates that experience, infecting the listener and compelling them to feel the same fear he had experienced. To Tolstoy this is a perfect example of art as it clearly communicates, is sincere, and is singular, focused on a particular emotion. Tolstoy condemned Wagner and Beethoven as examples of overly cerebral artists who lacked true emotion. Tolstoy wrote that Beethoven’s, Symphony No. 9 merely pretends at a feeling of unity and therefore is not good art.
The music room inside Yuriage High School. Photo Stack Jones.
Another problem with a great deal of “art” is that it reproduces past models, and as a result it is not properly rooted in a contemporary and sincere expression of the most enlightened cultural ideals of the artist’s time and place. To cite one example, ancient Greek art extolled virtues of strength, masculinity, and heroism according to the values derived from its mythology. However, Christianity embraces the virtues of the meek and humble. Tolstoy therefore believed it is impossible for modern society to embrace tradition forms of art. He also believed that art should not be considered a means to pleasure or to consider it as one of the conditions of human life. The activity of art is based on the fact that a man, receiving through his sense of hearing or sight another man’s expression of feeling, is capable of experiencing the emotion, which moved the man who expressed it. If a man laughs, and another hears it, he becomes merry. If a man weeps, and another hears it, he feels sorrow.
Steven Pressfield in his, The War of Art wrote, “To labor in the arts for any reason other than love is prostitution.” Elbert Hubbard wrote, “Art is not a thing—it is a way.” Michelangelo said, “The artist must be the sponsor of thought in whatever endeavor people take on, at every level.”
After years of representing artists, studying “art”, and creating music, lyrics, poetry, stories, illustrations, and photography, I’m still no closer to understanding what art truly is. I can only assert in it’s simplest form art is subjective, and therefore means something different to everyone. I do believe however that art and tragedy coexist, and that the former could not exist without the latter.
What is art? Art is a tool. It’s an integral extension of tragedy, and it communicates in a manner that the event in and of itself cannot. A true artist does their best to infect our emotions. Sometimes they’re successful at it, and sometimes they fail. Art forces us to look at what we don’t want to see, or believe, and consider alternatives. I think that’s what art’s greatest gift is.
Art is many things to many people. It’s a snapshot of the world in an expressive form perceived by the creator, and conveyed to the audience. Once submitted, the audience determines to accept it as art, or not. If I may borrow a couple of Japanese words, I’d say that art is, dozo – domo, meaning “here you are” and “thank you”. If these two conditions are met, it is art. Or not!
This linktakes the reader to Stack Jones photography that was shot during Japan’s 3.11.11. triple disaster. Many images have never been exhibited before. The comments in the timeline share Jones’ personal experience while shooting Japan’s worst disaster since experts began keeping records.
Daini: An evacuated town inside, the first nuclear facility to report failure during 3.11.11. Photo Stack Jones.
This article originally ran in the March, 2014 edition of the Tokyo Weekender magazine. http://tokyoweekender.com/2014/03/when-worlds-collide-art-and-tragedy.
© 2014. All Rights Reserved.
Bigger Than Life: Shooting Macro Photography In Japan
Shooting With Nikon’s AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED Lens
The canopy of Enkaizan Omaru Yama. Photo Stack Jones.
There’s a wildlife reserve that’s walking distance from my residence. It’s called Enkaizan Omaru Yama. This location is one of those off the beaten paths that you won’t find in glossy covered tourist magazines, and that’s fine with me.
I decided to shoot Enkaizan Omaru Yama with one of Nikon’s most talked about lens, the AF-S VR Micro-Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED. I received it as a points purchase from Yodobashi in Akihabara. It was free! Apparently, it was my reward for purchasing a lot of equipment from that particular electronics chain over the several years I’ve lived in Japan. I would also use Nikon’s D800 for the shoot, and set a few rules to follow regarding the shots I’d be taking for this article. First, all shots were to be taken handheld. I didn’t want to spend a lot of time setting up a tripod, merely hoping that I’d be able to get a good shot. I once spent two entire evenings in Del Mar, California shooting large bumblebees that frenetically swirled around the oceanfront cliffs that were covered in wild lavender. I was using a tripod, and the experience was tormenting. The bees weren’t cooperating. Waiting around in a single position, hoping for all of the stars to align to get a spectacular shot is fine for others, but it’s not one of my greatest strengths. I also wouldn’t be using a technique known as stacking, which is where one takes several different shots, all with different focus ranges, and later bring all those images into software to piece them together, in order to achieve what would appear to be one single sharp image. I also decided not to carry any other lens, and I would limit each subject to only three shots. I first heard about this rule of three several years ago when I discovered that Jimmy Page, the legendary guitarist of Led Zeppelin never took more than three takes of any recorded solo. I’d rediscover this rule in film school where it’s used as an editing technique to aid the writer, or director convey a sense of rhythm in one aspect of telling their story.
Obviously, sharp images make for interesting photos of insects, and plants. Likewise, taking photos with a camera in hand, with a lens of the magnitude of the 105mm, also gives a photographer the ability to create other desired visual effects. Where tack sharp images show off technical expertise, removing that element aids in utilizing other techniques to obtain visual aesthetics.
One of the reasons I decided to go entirely handheld is that Nikon was claiming that the D800 could bring into focus images, which were shot out of focus. I found this to be a marketing ploy, more so than actual fact. Especially shooting subjects in low light, such as Enkaizan Omaru Yama, which is covered in a thick canopy of sprawling branches, which bore fresh sprouts of summer leaves. I also wanted to see how well the vibration reduction of the Nikkor 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED lens held up in such conditions.
Before shooting, I performed a ritual that I like to do when I have the option to do so. I had actually never been to Enkaizan Omaru Yama. On my first trip I’d go without a camera, and explore what I hoped would become my target subject. It’s quite difficult to do that in a place like a wildlife reserve, as I may lose a shot that I’d want to preserve. Even so, this technique of going to a shooting location empty handed gave me the freedom to study the area, and consider what I’d like to achieve. This isn’t as easy as it first seems, as weather is often fickle in Japan. The general rule is that it’s sunny one day, and dumps rain for the next three. I’ve also done this at locations where I expected to find something worth shooting, and found none. This saved me from having to lug around heavy equipment under those circumstances upon return.
The sign reads: Removing Plants Is Prohibited. Photo Stack Jones.
On my first visit to Enkaizan Omaru Yama, I discovered a steamy environment teeming with insects, and other forms of wildlife. The terrain was hilly, and the forest dense. Much to my delight the variety of flowers were numerous, with each species in full bloom. In contrast to the towering cedar, pine, and bamboo, the flowering plants were tiny. Several of the insects, which helped maintain the ecosystem in that dense environment, were quite small as well. After exploring Enkaizan Omaru Yama, I had a pretty good idea of what I could expect to accomplish, and was pretty excited about returning, which was planned for the following day.
The neighborhood that surrounds Enkaizan Omaru Yama was intriguing, as much of the manmade structures were built prior to WWII. They were rustic, and bore the wear of time. For example, I found an abandoned property, where beautiful mossy covered rocky steps led up to what had once been someone’s home. It was surrounded by a towering bamboo forest. The physical structure remained in pretty good condition. I estimated that it could be restored for about fifty grand. I thought how wonderful it would be to have a quaint house in that location, surrounded by a wildlife reserve on all sides, an abundance of greenery, and strange sounding birds that filled the forest.
I walked around the home, peeking inside the windows, and noticed tatami flooring that hadn’t been walked on in at least a couple of decades. Bamboo blinds tilted because the sun had rotted the twine that had once held them in place. There was no interior toilet, and the thin hallways, and rice paper slat doors left me with the same visual impression I’ve seen in countless Kurosawa films. The river that ran through that small community was not far from that abandoned property. I’m certain that the path that led to the water was where those inhabitants bathed, washed their clothing, and used for other purposes in their daily lives. Today that water, which no doubt had once been a meandering creek, exists as all other bodies of water do in Japan, shored up on both sides by unsightly concrete, and lacking in visual appeal. The water no longer runs freely, and pristine through what the nation calls a wildlife preserve.
Not far from that abandoned structure, and walled up creek, I discovered other housing, the kind that’s never shown in photo blogs, or tourist magazines. Those poorly maintained apartments appeared weathered, rickety, and brittle, yet still provided shelter for those who lived there. There were three large cages, which I noticed as I was on my way to the entrance to the reserve. Inside those cages were cooing creatures. One of those cages had been attached to an exterior wall on the second floor of the apartments. It looked like it had been there for many years, and could come crashing to the ground at any moment. In one of those cages I saw two beautiful white birds that first appeared to be large doves. Yet, they weren’t doves. It’s possible these were some kind of carrier birds, a hobby, or perhaps that evening’s meal. A long board hung over the entry of one of the doors, which were no taller than five feet, and about two-thirds as wide as a normal door. None of the units had air conditioning, and were beyond repair. I became curious as to whom each, and every one of those inhabitants was.
While continuing on my exploration, I discovered a small plum grove that had been carved out of a section of the forest. Lying on the ground under one tree were a hundred or so green plums about the size of quail eggs. An elderly man was in the process of scooping them up into a plastic bag that he brought with him, apparently for that particular purpose. We talked a bit, and I learned he’d been to San Francisco, and even to Yosemite National Park. But that was many years ago. I asked if he was going to eat the plums, however I already knew the answer. He was going to use them to make plum sake. He offered me a bagful, but I politely declined, knowing that he hadn’t taken the effort to remove plums, just to hand them over to a complete stranger, let alone a foreigner. I said goodbye, and went my way. I wasn’t prepared for what I would discover next. As I continued down a particular path, as there were many, I came upon tall cedars, and tall bamboo. It was as if the path was a boundary, and both species of plant life knew not to cross over to the other side. I looked about for signs that this was manmade, but couldn’t detect any.
Protruding petals that appear as tiny fingers. Photo Stack Jones.
As I walked on, I found a young lady sleeping on a bench. The sign behind her, which was written in Japanese read, “Resting area.” She heard me approaching on the path, and lighted. We talked a bit, and I learned she was a local girl, and in her third year at a university studying medicine. I can’t recall the name of the university. I took her photo near one of the signs that laid out the park’s extensive walking course. I asked her to show me her favorite area. She did! I find it odd that an attractive young woman would freely venture deeper into a remote area, with a complete stranger. But, that’s how it often is in a country where people don’t have a level of apathy, or distrust that is prominent in the states. Ironically, her favorite area was my least favorite in the reserve. It turned out that this was the place that she often brought her dog, and the animal really enjoyed tromping around in the high grass. I preferred walking amongst the tall bamboo. We said our goodbyes, and I watched as she disappeared down a path I had not previously noticed, and had only moments earlier walked past while following the girl in the long black hair.
I had seen enough of what I had come for, and if the weather held up, on the next day, I would be back to Enkaizan Omaru Yama, shooting what it had to offer, and in a very limited capacity. It was getting late, time to head home!
The next day the air was dry. It was cool, and a bit too breezy for my particular purpose. Trying to shoot images up close as they swayed to and fro would be a challenge that led to dismal results. I thought about holding off until the wind died. Perhaps the following day? This was the second day in a row of clear blue skies. These conditions weren’t going to last, and if it did rain, and I had to wait a few more days, the fresh buds would certainly be gone. I rationalized that perhaps once I was under the canopy of the thick ancient cedar, pine, and maple that the wind wouldn’t be too great a factor. I would be wrong! Shooting would turn out to be more difficult that I thought, but on the opposing side of the dilemma of high winds, and wobbly plant life was the fact that the mosquitos wouldn’t be such a great distraction.
The one thing that displeased me was that I couldn’t get close to the large black butterflies, which were the size of my hands. They seemed to purposely stay high in the canopy. Other insects never rested, not even for a moment, including the honeybees, which were busy fiddlin’ about. I thought about the honeybees in the states, which are currently being wiped out through the use of glyphosate pesticides. I thought about the deplorable TPP trade deal that no one but shareholders of multinationals would benefit from. I shuttered to think that genetically altered seeds that required the soil saturated in that poison would be imposed upon Japanese farmers, who for hundreds of years have protected their seeds. It was already bad enough that the radiation contamination from Namie tainted nearly ever crop in the nation. If the trade deal takes root, then Japan’s agriculture would in my opinion become entirely inedible. Also, if anyone refused to grow it, or consume it, the corporation that produce those mutated products would have carte blanche to sue for loss revenues.
After spending a few hours at Enkaizan Omaru Yama it was time to finish the shooting aspect of the project. I wasn’t sure what I had captured, as the slightest movement in a focal depth that shallow destroys an otherwise perfect shot.
While viewing the photos, I realized that I didn’t know what most of those plants, and insects were called. I contacted, The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists to see if they would answer those mysteries. But, I received a generic response saying they don’t give out that kind of information. I thought, if an organization that spends its time studying Japanese plant life won’t answer those kinds of questions, who would? It probably took more time to translate the response in English, than to just tell me the names of the plants. Much like The Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists refusal to aid in naming a few plants so I could in turn share that information with the readers of this article, life is all too often absurd.
A bright burst of purple, and orange anther. Photo Stack Jones.
After looking at the large blown up images of life that existed in Enkaizan Omaru Yama, I realized just how small many of the flowers that I took actually were. Some as little as the nail on my pinky finger. The insects that were nourished by them were even smaller. Some I could barely see without the aid of the magnification of the lens. As I left, I was reminded of how many creatures that I had discovered, and how difficult it was to try, and photograph them under my self imposed rules.
A week later I returned to Enkaizan Omaru Yama to walk around with my infant son, and to share with him the things that I had discovered. As we entered the reserve I was surprised to discover that every flowering plant that I had photographed was gone. They’d all been cut down to clear away the high growth that had already begun to cover the reserves walking path. That’s where the majority of my photos came from. The flowers, and the myriad of buds that had yet to bloom were cut away. I thought, what form of preservation is this? What flowers hadn’t been chopped to bits had withered away in the hot sun. Even the vast array of insects were nowhere to be found. Everything appeared different. It reminded me of the impermanence of all things. On the other end of the spectrum, several bamboo shoots that were barely head high, were now towering a dozen feet above me. Even so, the land that I stood upon appeared as if a horrible, and tumultuous storm had come, like a land tsunami, and flattened everything. The paths were no longer teaming in apparent life. They now appeared nearly void of it. An image of a Brazilian rain forest came to mind; a bird’s eye view, revealing cattle grazing upon it. Soon enough those cows would end up on someone’s dinner plate. Although these thoughts raced through my head, the time I was sharing with my son was fantastic. He finally had a chance to see real butterflies as they flapped their wings, and flew in their apparent erratic motion. I thought those large ones high in the canopy were wise to remain there. My favorite moment with my son was when I picked up a dandy lion, showed it to him, and blew the seeds away. I watched his face in total enjoyment as they rained down all around him. I handed him a dandy lion, and tried to show him how to blow on it. Instead, he handed it back to me, expecting me to perform that same magical feat. (And again, and again and…)
On our way out of Enkaizan Omaru Yama, I thought of all the microcosms that existed where I had stood. I thought of the unknowing havoc I wreaked upon the microscopic life forms I had trampled upon to get the shots I had taken of the flowers that no longer existed. I thought about the vegans, and vegetarians that proclaim they eat no animals, yet devour trillions of living creatures in every bite of food that goes into their mouths. I then looked up at the canopy above, and caught a glimpse of what lied beyond. A thing we call infinity. Suddenly, the lyrics from a song titled, Don’t You Feel Small written by the group, The Moody Blues came to mind. “Ask the mirror on the wall. Who’s the biggest fool of all, bet you feel small. It happens to us all. See the world as what it’s for. Understanding, nothing more. Don’t you feel small? It happens to us all. Time is now to spread your voice. Time’s to come there’ll be no choice. Why do you feel small? It happens to us all. Look at progress, then count the cost. We’ll spoil the seas with the rivers we’ve lost. See the writing on the wall. Hear the mirror’s warning call. That’s why you feel small. It happens to us all. Ask the mirror on the wall. Who’s the biggest fool of all? Bet you feel small? It happens to us all.
This article originally ran in the June, 2015 edition of the Tokyo Weekender magazine. http://tokyoweekender.com/2015/06/bigger-than-life-a-macro-photography-excursion-in-yokohama.
© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
JIGOKUDANI YAEN-KOEN: SNOW MONKEY PARADISE IN HELL VALLEY
A snow monkey takes a dip in the Yokoyu River hot spring. Photo Stack Jones.
Jigokudani means Hell Valley in Japanese, and received this moniker long before monkeys began monkeying around in the Yokoyu River. The valley in this region of Nagano Prefecture has steep cliffs, with hot water that steams when it comes to the surface. Jigokudani-koen is the only place on earth where monkeys bath.
The snow monkeys aren’t the only attraction in the park. The Jigokudani fountain of Shibu is a national monument that has been venting hot water for centuries. In 1783, it abruptly halted when Mount Asama erupted. Mount Asama is the most active volcano in the Honshu region and has erupted several times since the early 1980s. Eruption of volcanic activities that results in steam is known as Jigoku (Hell) phenomenon. The water that erupts is salty spring yet crystal clear. The pristine water from this area supplies Shibu-onsen and Kanbayashi-onsen. Another onsen, Korakukan opened in 1864 and is considered a therapeutic bathing facility.
About two hundred Japanese Macaque call this place home. The monkeys form close bonds with others in the group. Some of their facial expressions, and mannerism are very humanlike. It’s truly an amazing place to visit.
A mother affectionately cuddles her offspring. Photo Stack Jones.
Despite the close proximity between human interaction and the monkey business that goes on at the park, tourists are warned not to touch or to make eye contact with the local inhabitants. This is because the monkeys may feel threatened, and try to scare or even bite in response. In monkey society, direct eye contact is a sign of hostility, and aggression. Visitors are also warned not to feed the animals, as they would inevitably expect a handout from everyone. In the past the monkeys have also been known to steal handbags, and other items. So, keep in mind that these are wild animals. They are not pets. In that, the monkeys were incredibly docile and quite used to the presence of humans.
When did the monkeys begin using the hot spring? Local facilitators of the park began to artificially feed the monkeys as far back as 1964. As a result, the monkeys stay longer in the park, and have more free time to relax while waiting for their next feeding. One cold day, a younger monkey went into the water. Others began to follow. It wasn’t long before the majority of the monkeys started to bath. Despite becoming famous for being water creatures, some do not like bathing at all. However, on very cold days, many will bath for a couple hours at a time.
Monkeys that live in such extreme weather conditions are unique in the world. It’s believed the monkey’s bath in the hot water due to the extreme winter elements, as they don’t seem to bath during the summer season.
Since the establishment of Jigokudani Yaen-koen in 1964, visiting the monkeys has become an attraction for tourist from all over the world. The “snow monkeys” have also become one of the most famous animals of Japanese folk tales, nursery rhymes, and proverbs according to the Jigokudani Yaen-koen website.
The Japanese Macaque has a pinkish face and bottom. Their coloring changes to bright red during copulation. There’s a strong bond between members of a group, especially among females and their babies. There is no noticeable hierarchy among the group. It’s reported that they rely on each other in just about every aspect of their life. The Macaque are not entirely peaceful. They do have conflicts and often receive injuries as a result of those episodes.
At times the Japanese Macaque exhibit very human like behavior. Photo Stack Jones.
Usually the larger offspring dominate the others. Not so with the snow monkeys. Among brothers and sisters, younger ones receive a higher ranking under their mother’s protection. This became immediately noticeable to me as during feeding time the younger monkeys were chasing off others that were quite larger. I found that humorous. It’s said that the mother’s protection exists to avoid fighting within the group. This does not infer that the higher-ranking monkeys have superiority over the ones that appear to have a lower ranking.
I discovered through literature provided by the park that the snow monkeys mainly communicate through sight. They read mood by observing other monkey’s expression and emotion. Although it’s not considered language, they use sounds to warn other of danger, to intimidate intruders from other groups, and to signal their presence. It’s said they express their feelings through variations of tone and volume. According to the park staff, the monkeys have an amazing ability to “read between the lines.”
The monkeys of Jigokudani Yaen-koen don’t sleep in dens. Of course, animals that sleep in den usually purge outside the den. As a result, the monkeys “go” anywhere. So, be careful where you walk. You’ve been warned.
The Macaque sleep in the safety of steep cliffs or branches of a tree. They huddle with immediate family members or their closest friends. They also hold hands and legs while sleeping together. Few sleep alone.
The monkeys are fed barley, soybeans and even apples, depending on the season. Barley and soybean are a preferred source of food for the monkeys who usually eat grass, tree leaves and flowers. In autumn the monkeys have a greater variety of food such as grapes and chestnuts that they can easily find in abundance in the nearby mountains. To keep them around, the caretakers dole out apples to entice them to stay. I learned that the snow monkeys generally are not attracted to human food. Obviously, feeding is intended to entice the monkeys to stay in the park, which attracts tourists. But it is also a way to keep them under observation, and to study their behavior in as close to a natural habitat as possible.
Things to remember
Monkeys are wild animals therefore visitors should follow the rules.
Do not show or give monkeys any food.
Do not touch . The monkeys are not pets.
Do not make them nervous. Otherwise they may terrorize or bite.
Do not stare. Staring and opening one’s mouth is a sign of hostility.
Do not get too close to them. Curious babies come close. In those cases step away as soon as possible.
No dogs, cats or other pets are allowed in the park.
Photos and video recordings are permissible. Handle equipment with care.
Do not get too close when taking photos.
This linksto a more in-depth reading about the Macaque that inhabit Jigokudani Yaen-koen.
Directions: From Nagano take a bus or train to Yudanaka. A bus service from Yudanaka runs to Kanbayashi Onsen Iriguchi. There’s a great museum up the hill from the bus stop. It’s free! There are great photos on display in that museum. The walk to Jigokudani Yaen-koen is approximately another thirty-minutes. It’s a fantastic journey in the winter and the entrance fee is insignificant for the amount of pleasure and excitement you will receive. March is said to be the best time to go. So what are you waiting for?
For more information contact:
Jigokudani Yaen-koen Inc.
6845 Yamanouchi-machi Shimotakai-gun
, Nagano Japan 381-0401
This article originally ran in the March, 2014 edition of the Tokyo Weekender magazine. http://tokyoweekender.com/2014/03/snow-monkey-paradise-in-hell-valley-jigokudani-yaen-koen.
© 2014. All Rights Reserved.
Japan, Child Abduction, The Hague And Sanctions
The above image was provided by Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Note: The first image shows a xenophobic Japanese child surrounded by foreign children all with big noses. The image below it shows a foreign man being arrested for committing a crime against a child. The middle image shows a Japanese woman in financial ruin because she married a foreigner, and is unable to provide for her daughter. The top right image shows a foreign male abducting his daughter, with the Japanese mother pleading for her return. The image below that shows a foreign male beating a defenseless child, taken from her mother who remains in Japan. This despicably racist propaganda was designed to aid the Japanese in understanding the implications of Japan ratifying The Hague Convention on Child Abduction. This twisted message exposes the depths of depravity Japanese officials are known for, and the irrational message they desire to portray to their own citizens. In reality, it’s the Japanese that abuse, and abduct children, more than just about any other nation.
Former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi married Kayoko Miyamoto in 1978. The following year the U.S. Congressional Subcommittee on International Child Abduction had its first hearing. Japan was one of the nations of main concern during that hearing. Koizumi’s marriage would end four years later in divorce. However, prior to the termination of the failed marriage, the couple had two sons, Kotaro, and Shinjiro.
It’s often said that in Japan custody of the children always go to the mother. The father almost always voluntarily cut ties with his children, and forever. While those in the west would find this arrangement appalling, Japan continues to pretend that this is perfectly acceptable conduct. In the case of Koizumi, his families political connections, along with Japan’s notoriously corrupt judiciary awarded sole custody of both sons to him, allowing his ex-wife sole custody of the six month, unborn fetus that she was carrying at the time of the marriage dissolution. Yoshinaga Miyamoto was born three months later. He became the third son of man who would be prime minister, and to this day has yet to meet his father, who has never acknowledged him. The divorce terms forbade contact between the mother, and her one, and four-year-old children who in reality were abducted from her by Koizumi. Neither of her abducted sons have ever met with their mother again, even though they live less than an hour away from one another. In an article for the L.A. Times Miyamato said, “I’ve been hoping to be reunited with my sons for nineteen years. All I can do is wait.” It’s been thirteen years since that story was published in 2002. The following is a link to that article: http://articles.latimes.com/2001/oct/02/news/mn-52341.
When Yoshinaga was newly born, Koizumi failed in a planned abduction attempt of his third son. When he was pressed on the issue Koizumi responded with speech characteristic of political jargon, stating, “It’s a matter of privacy, I’d like to refrain from commenting. However, I thank the Japanese public for entrusting the important duty of prime minister to a divorced politician. I feel a change flowing in Japanese society.” Change occurred indeed. Across Japan the rate of divorce skyrocketed. So did the rate of child abductions.
Kotaro, and Shinjiro are now both adults. One is an aspiring politician; the other is a talentless pop star. Although Yoshinaga has never met his famous father, he somehow admires the man, and continues to hope that one day he would be able to meet him. For Kayoko, seeing her abducted son plastered on billboards, advertisements, and performing on TV shows is too much for her to endure. Yoshinaga became a fixture on morning talk shows with his repeated pleas to meet with his father entirely ignored. Silence! That’s how Japan deals with the myriad of social injustices, and morally reprehensible conduct that continues to plague the nation.
The former prime minister is a man who intentionally, and irresponsibly shirked his duty to raise a son, who loved him unconditionally. Regardless, during Koizumi’s televised campaign for the prime minister’s seat, Yoshinaga, who was a young boy at the time, would be heard by his mother shouting, “Come on, Pop, win this one!” Sadly, those shouts would be absorbed by the wind!
One thing Koizumi, and Jong-il have in common is that they’re both child abductors.
After Koizumi won the office of prime minister, on September 17th, 2002, he visited North Korea to meet with Kim Jong-il to address the issue of Japan’s claim that North Korean agents had abducted hundreds of Japanese citizens, to train spies so they could communicate in Japanese, and to understand the culture. Unlike Koizumi, and every prime minister that would follow in his footsteps, North Korea would admit culpability to a handful of abductions, apologize, and return five victims. Japan, on the other hand has never acknowledged any of the thousands of kidnappings its responsible for, and has yet to return any of the known victims that have been abducted from nearly every nation on the face of the planet. In the U.S. alone, and ever since congress began holding hearings on child abductions, those kidnappings amount to more than four thousand.
A celebrated history of child abduction
Japan’s first shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu whose descendants ruled Japan until the Meiji Restoration, was a victim of numerous abductions. Ieyasu was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyo of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, and Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighboring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa. The majority of Ieyasu’s family had ties with the Imagawa clan. Family feuding over regional pacts resulted in the murder of Ieyasu’s paternal grandfather. Tokugawa Iemitsu, the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, and grandson of Ieyasu ruled from 1623 until 1651. Iemitsu was responsible for shutting off relations between Japan, and the rest of the world for two centuries. In the process, Iemitsu destroyed thousands of families, separating fathers, and mothers from their children by not allowing Japanese citizens who were overseas to return home, under the threat of execution. This decree commonly called the Sakoku Policy did not only affect Japanese families, foreigners caught up in the irrational decree were also forbidden to leave Japan, thereby affectively cutting them off from reunification with their wives, and children as well.
The abductions of Ieyasu
In 1548, when the Oda clan invaded Mikawa, Hirotada, Ieyasu’s father turned to Imagawa Yoshimoto, the head of the Imagawa clan for help to repel the invading forces. Yoshimoto agreed to help under the condition that Hirotada sent Ieyasu to Senpu, where he would be held as a hostage to assure Ieyasu’s father remained loyal to Imagawa. Hirotada agreed to this unconscionable term. Oda Nobuhide, the leader of the Oda clan learned of this arrangement, and had Ieyasu abducted while he was en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was merely six years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute the child unless his father severed all ties with the Imagawa clan. Hirotada replied that sacrificing his son’s life showed his determination to remain loyal to the Imagawa clan. Despite Hirotada’s refusal, Nobuhide chose not to murder Ieyasu, but instead held him hostage for the next three years at the Manshoji Temple in Nagoya. Ieyasu would never be reunited with his father, or mother ever again.
By 1549, when Ieyasu was seven years old, his father died of natural causes. At about that same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic outbreak. The death of Nobuhide weakened the Oda clan. Imagawa Sessai sent an army to lay siege on the castle where Nobuhide’s first son now ruled. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide’s second son, Nobunaga. He promised to end the siege if Ieyasu was handed over to the Imagawa clan. Nobunaga agreed. Ieyasu was once again abducted, and taken to Sunpu, his original abduction destination. There the boy was held hostage until the age of fifteen when his abductor passed away.
I had a chance to visit Ieyasu’s remains, which are housed in a lavish shrine in Tochigi Prefecture. I had gone to Tochigi to write an article for Tokyo Weekender on Nikko’s National Park in autumn. The following is a link to that article: http://tokyoweekender.com/2012/11/nikko-in-autumn. I shrugged off taking the time out of my schedule to visit Ieyasu’s final resting place. I was not interested in visiting the grave of man who through fraud had faked his own royal lineage to persuade Kyoto’s religious leaders to sanction his appointment to shogunate.
Today, Ieyasu is celebrated as the man who ended Japan’s Warring State Era. In reality, Ieyasu, and his offspring were mass murderers; sociopaths responsible for the destruction, and pillage of an entire nation, as well as the continued policy of abducting children to ensure the Tokugawa’s remained in power. Ieyasu was also responsible for the mass beheadings of those who sought refuge in Osaka Castle when he took siege against a child he had sworn an oath to protect. The Tokugawa’s were also responsible for the genocide of Christians who joined forces with peasant farmers known as the Shimabara Uprising. Both Christians, and peasants were executed en masse because they refused to bow to the Tokugawa’s as deities, and refused to pay excessive taxes, that in reality were causing the peasants, and their children to starve to death.
No doubt Ieyasu’s childhood trauma played a significant role in his inability to understand the importance of family relations, and his vow to protect an innocent child that was incapable of protecting itself. Ieyasu would write the Buddha’s name ten thousand times in an attempt to absolve himself of the lack of integrity that was a clear part of his character. He could have written the Buddha’s name a million times, it wouldn’t change the fact that he was a liar, and a murderer of children who were incapable of defending themselves. Ieyasu’s lack of integrity remains an inherent aspect of the Japanese mindset, as Japan continues to dishonor international treaties the nation has ratified, including The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.
Regarding the folklore, and myth known as the Japanese honor code, made famous in books, poetry, and movies, it holds no real position in factual history. There simply is nothing honorable when it comes to the nation’s refusal to address the myriad of child abductions that continue to stain the nation’s xenophobic reputation. Unfortunately, that lack of integrity, and the lack of honor is the true “way” of the Japanese, where the samurai, or “warrior” code has long been exposed as for what it really is, a fallacy.
A painting of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japan’s first shogunate, and victim of multiple abductions as a child.
Japan’s irrational ideology on child abduction
U.S. congressional committees on international child abduction have been going on since 1979. With Japan being one of the most egregious violators in bilateral relations regarding this subject matter. H.R. 3212 was passed into law in the U.S. to ensure nations complied with the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction by countries with which the U.S. enjoys reciprocal obligations to establish procedures for the prompt return of children abducted to other countries, and to impose stiff sanctions on nations that do not comply with this law. Japan signed this agreement in April of 2014, and is subject to sanctions as a result of being in violation of these terms.
U.S. Rep. Chris Smith (NJ) spent five years fighting for the passage of a law known as The Sean and David Goldman International Child Abduction Prevention and Return Act of 2014. Smith stated, “Many children, and parents have tragically lost years separated from each other in violation of U.S., and international law,” He added, “They have missed birthdays, holidays, and family time that they can never get back. H.R. 3212 ensures that they will now receive significant help from the U.S. government in their fights to recover their children. Every day a child is separated from his or her rightful parent, and home in the United States brings immense suffering to both parent, and child. The Goldman Act is designed to right the terrible wrong of international child abduction, and heal enormous pain, and suffering, and bring abducted children home.”
More than one thousand international child abductions are reported to the State Department’s Office on Children’s Issues each year. Between 2008, and 2013, at least 8,000 American children were abducted, according to the State Department. Earlier this year, the National Center for Exploited and Missing Children reported that there have been at least 168 international child abductions from New Jersey alone since 1995.
In a March 2015 hearing on Capitol Hill, Congressman Smith stated that, “Japan is breathtakingly unresponsive on U.S. child abductions.” He called for immediate sanctions. Smith stated that unless sanctions are imposed, which are the consequences of The Goldman Act, for non-compliance, the law would be toothless. Smith called on Tokyo to comply with its international obligations.
Despite Japan ratifying the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, it has yet to comply with any aspects of the treaty regarding the return of the more than four hundred known U.S. cases of child abduction. The accord requires the Japanese government to set up processes for legal appeals from foreign parents seeking either visitation or the return of their children to the country where those children were abducted. Ironically, Japan has used the treaty to have five children returned to Japan, yet continues to fail to acknowledge parental rights abroad, even where abductors have been placed on Interpol, and the FBI’s Most Wanted List. This double standard is repugnant, and harmful to international relations, and national security. Further, Japan has received sixty-seven requests for the return of abducted children since ratifying The Hague terms, from the U.S. alone, and has yet to take any action. As of this writing, the FBI Most Wanted List include Japanese child abductors, Ryoko Uchiyama, and Reiko Nakata Greenberg-Collins both have international warrants out for their arrests.
There are currently more than four hundred known cases of children kidnapped to Japan since 1994 from the U.S., a number Smith called “unconscionable.” What is equally unconscionable is during that same hearing on Capitol Hill, Representative Smith requested the actual number of children returned from Japan to the U.S. Susan Jacobs, the Special Advisor for Children’s Issues at the State Department responded by saying, that she didn’t know representative Smith was going to “ask for numbers.” Smith ridiculed Jacobs for not having that information readily available. The truth is that Jacobs knew exactly what those numbers were. None! No child has been returned to the U.S., which proves that Jacobs is entirely inept in handling the responsibilities of the position that she holds, and should be removed from office for gross incompetence, and for failing to take adequate steps to address this with Japanese officials. Ridiculously, Jacobs would also state, “I talked to Ambassador Kennedy yesterday, and she is energized and she is ready to launch.” Kennedy has been the Ambassador to Japan since November 2013. Did it really take this long to get energized on one of the major topics of friction between U.S., and Japanese relations? Jacob’s empty rhetoric has been going on for several years now. Smith was obviously frustrated at Jacob’s inability to understand the gravity of the situation. Jacobs would then tell Smith that she “shared his frustration”, and was planning to visit Japan in June, where she, and Ambassador Kennedy would discuss the annual report with Japanese officials.
In 2013, Representative Cardin (Maryland), of the Foreign Relations Committee spoke to Kennedy on the topic of child kidnapping, and Japan, and the four hundred pending cases of American abductions. Mr. Cardin asked Kennedy if she would use her office to help resolve those open cases. Kennedy stated, “As a parent I certainly understand the emotional aspect of this issue,” and “That everyone at the State Department is really committed to making that happen, and to bring these issues forward, and resolve these cases.” This comment was made nearly two years ago, yet Kennedy has not taken any steps in dealing with this matter. Kennedy did Tweet regarding other inhumane conduct the Japanese engage in, and which is internationally condemned, the Taiji dolphin slaughter.
Cases of child abductions prior to April 2014 fall outside of the scope of The Hague Agreement on child abductions, which Smith blasted as outrageous. Parents in those situations may still apply to Japan for visitation rights, but almost no parent has ever received such rights, and when they do, they are treated as if they are an imprisoned felon, with police, lawyers, Japanese officials, and the other bawling, and objecting parent in a separate adjacent room doing their best to interrupt the reunion, while all view the short visitation through one-way glass. Children who haven’t seen their non-abducting parent in several months, to several years, and probably have been brainwashed with horror stories, and may no longer be unable to communicate in their native tongue, no doubt would cry due to the high level of stress associated with the circumstance. If they appear detached, Japanese officials take that as a sign that the child wants nothing to do with the non-abducting parent. Anyone that has obtained even basic child psychology knowledge would immediately recognize that a child who had been separated from their parent for such a long time, needed an adequate adjustment period, and most likely psychological counseling as well. Thirty minutes or so just doesn’t equate as an adequate parent-child reunion.
Is the State Department assisting parents in the return of their abducted child?
Unfortunately, history has taught us that if anyone wants to get something accomplished, they have to take matters into their own hands. The recent action of the State Department proves that if the U.S. government is not willing to assist citizens whose lives are in peril in Yemen, they certainly aren’t going to aid someone to get their abducted child back, despite laws that are written regarding the scope, and degree of the State Department’s duties in such matters. U.S. citizens stranded in Yemen had to resort to filing a lawsuit against the Department of State for abandoning them. Meanwhile, other countries including, China, Russia, and India, have conducted large-scale evacuations, including aiding in evacuating numerous U.S. citizens.
On August 24th, 2011, 14 year-old Mary Lake, a U.S. citizen, who was kidnapped by her mother, and taken to Japan in 2005, in one of the most high-profile international kidnapping cases in U.S. history, walked into the U.S. consulate in Osaka, and asked to be rescued, after being held captive in Japan for six years. Indifferent, and incompetent consular staff refused to aid in the child’s rescue, and instead sent her back to her kidnapper. Mary’s father, William Lake, would later be informed of his daughter’s attempted rescue by caseworker Virginia Vause from the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Children’s Issues. Lake would learn that the consular office attempted to make only one call to him at his residence. They didn’t leave a voice message, nor did they contact him on his cell phone, or send an email. When Lake brought up the issue of why his daughter was turned away, he was told that the consulate would not assist in his daughter’s escape because they needed to have his written authorization to take her into custody. Furthermore, if his daughter were taken into custody the consulate would have to assign a staff member to stay with her until she was returned to the U.S., an inconvenience that the State Department refused to accept. They also required an agreement in advance for Lake to repay any airfare costs. This was the third episode of gross negligence on the part of the Department of State toward Lake, and his daughter. Twice previously they illegally issued passports for his daughter without obtaining his required signature, even after it had been established that her father was the lawful parent, and the mother was wanted for kidnapping. Generally, all cases involve at least one parent who is Japanese. In Lake’s case, neither the victims, nor the abducting mother are Japanese. It’s should be harshly apparent when it comes to the crime of child abduction that the Department of State clearly values the relations with foreign nations over the safety, well-being, and lives of U.S. citizens being held captive in Japan.
Jeffrey Morehouse has spoken on Capitol Hill numerous times regarding child abduction. He was granted sole custody of his son in 2007 due to his former wife’s alcohol abuse, psychological issues, violence, and because she was a flight risk. Restraining orders against the mother traveling with their son were in place when she fraudulently obtained a passport from the Japanese consulate in Portland, after being turned away in Seattle. U.S. consular officials have refused numerous requests to pursue prosecution, and adamantly refuse to aid in the return of Morehouse’s son based on his former spouse’s violation of both Japanese, and U.S. laws regarding child abduction. Since Morehouse’s son was abducted, all communication ceased between them. The boy’s whereabouts, mental, and physical condition remain unknown. In March 2014 Morehouse was granted sole custody by a Japanese court. Yet, he still has no contact with his son, and has no knowledge as to where he is being held. Morehouse operates an organization called BACHome: Bring Abducted Children Home. In the following link, Morehouse testifies before a congressional hearing that took place in March of 2015, regarding child abduction, Japan’s ratification of The Hague Convention on Child Abduction, The Goldman Act, the facts regarding the disappearance of his son, as well as the imposition of sanctions on Japan: https://youtube.com/watch?v=4eHITnrRMFA.
On March 11th, 2009, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed House Resolution 125 by a vote of 418-0, condemning Japan for its actions on International Child Abduction. This congressional resolution described Japan as “a United States ally which does not recognize intra-familial child abduction as a crime, and though its family laws do not discriminate by nationality, Japanese courts give no recognition to the parental rights of the non-Japanese parent, fail to enforce U.S. court orders relating to child custody or visitation, and place no effective obligation on the Japanese parent to allow parental visits for their child.”
On May 21st, 2009, the U.S., the UK, France, and Canada released a joint press statement condemning Japan for it’s inaction regarding international child abduction, and called on Japan to sign the Hague Convention. These four nations acting with one voice stated, “left-behind parents of children abducted to or from Japan have little realistic hope of having their children returned, and encounter great difficulties in obtaining access to their children, and exercising their parental rights, and responsibilities.” These countries urged Japan “to identify, and implement measures to enable parents who are separated from their children to maintain contact with them, and to visit them,” and described the “failure to develop tangible solutions to most cases of parental child abduction in Japan particularly troubling.”
On July 13th 2003, Erika Toland was abducted from her home at Negishi Navy Family Housing in Yokohama, Japan. Her mother, the abductor, Etsuko Toland, subsequently died of suicide on October 31st, 2007. Since the death of the child’s mother, her maternal grandmother, Akiko Futagi, has refused Erika any contact with her father. The child’s father is, Commander Paul Toland, a highly decorated U.S. Naval officer. Since his daughter’s abduction he has been trying to see Erika, to no avail. On June 25th, 2009, Congressman Chris Smith discussed Erika’s case on the floor of the House of Representatives. He stated, “The international movement of our service members make them especially vulnerable to the risks of international child abduction. Attorneys familiar with this phenomenon estimate that there are approximately 25 to 30 new cases of international child abductions affecting U.S. service members every year.”
More than a decade later, Erika remains held as a hostage from her father, as government officials tasked with the duty to address these issues remain staggeringly indifferent. Toland has spent his life savings trying to have his daughter returned to him. His Japanese attorney told him via email, “Please understand that your case is not a piece of cake due to the racism, and irrationality of the Japanese legal system. It might be like defending the Taliban in the U.S.” Toland said while speaking at a congressional hearing, “I flew to Japan, and waited on a street corner to greet Erika on her way home from school, because this is the only contact with dignity that is possible. I knew that if I had tried to take Erika to the embassy, and attempted to get a passport, I would likely meet the same fate as Christopher Savoie, when he attempted to retrieve his children from Japan. I would likely be blocked at the gates of the embassy by a state department that was more interested in preserving a relationship with Japan, over the welfare of U.S. citizens. I’d likely end up in a Japanese jail, as Christopher Savoie did.
In the following link, Navy Commander Toland testifies before the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission of the U.S. House of Representatives in Washington D.C. on December 2nd, 2009: https://youtube.com/watch?t=23&v=f9lfTWFX0f8.
The Department of State and Japan’s nuclear debacle
After the third nuclear explosion at the Daiichi Nuclear Facility in Namie, Fukushima, the U.S. consulate finally made the determination that American citizens were in peril. If U.S. citizens wanted to leave the country, they could board planes that were available at Narita airport. At the time I was appearing on MSNBC with Brian Williams, and my photography, and videography was appearing in several media outlets. I contacted the U.S. Embassy, and inquired into the conditions for U.S. citizens to board one of those planes. I stated that April was the beginning of the work year in Japan, and there were thousands of new teachers stranded, and probably unable to pay for flights back home, as they had just arrived, and most likely were recent university graduates. The embassy staff told me that if citizens were unable to pay for the flight back to the U.S., their passports would be confiscated, and unless they paid the State Department back the airfare, plus interest, they would never be allowed to leave the U.S. again. I was shocked, and couldn’t believe what I was hearing. The entire nation was shut down including all forms of transportation, store shelves were empty, and Tokyo’s water spiked with high level of radiation contamination. It was finally disclosed that Daiichi was using MOX Fuel, and high levels of plutonium were released into the atmosphere, as Japanese officials played the silence game, telling everyone to remain calm, and that there was “no immediate threat to life.” Professor Koide from Kyoto University, a nuclear physicist, and long time adversary of the reckless, and grossly negligent energy company, TEPCO stated that the plutonium alone released from those three explosions were the equivalent to 200,000 Hiroshima bombs. I had a friend who had direct contact with Nancy Pelosi. I informed them what was happening, and they immediately notified her as to what the embassy was scheming in Tokyo. The next morning it was one of the top news story that Pelosi had gotten planes on Narita’s tarmac, and they were available for free to any U.S. citizen who wanted to leave the country. The threat of passport confiscation ended, as well as turning U.S. citizens into homeland prisoners due to no fault of their own.
The Department of State’s complicity in kidnapping children
Julian Assange’s trouble began when WikiLeaks released thousands of classified documents that exposed not only U.S. war crimes that were occurring in Iraq, but also diplomatic communications that were taking place at the State Department. I took an interest in the topic as most Americans did. The government’s position was that the release of those documents “placed American overseas in imminent danger.” Some of those documents I read exposed communications between U.S., and foreign diplomats, exposing U.S. involvement in the abduction of third world children, and turning them over to foreign diplomats, who were pedophiles, so those children could be used as sex slaves. In exchange for those “favors”, the foreign diplomats engaged in “international cooperation”, and assisted those U.S. officials who worked for the State Department in business transactions they would benefit from. None of those diplomats have ever been brought to trial, as they enjoy immunity from prosecution. Yet, Assange who exposed these outrageous crimes remains on self-imposed lockdown in the Ecuadorian Embassy of London, which is monitored around the clock by U.S., and UK government agents. Private Manning who turned over those documents to WikiLeaks was convicted for violating the Espionage Act, and sentenced to thirty five years imprisonment, forfeiture of all pay, and dishonorably discharged. Ironically, Assange, who is not a U.S. citizen, and who was guilty of nothing more than what the mass media often does, did exactly what the corporate media would have done with that information if it had been turned over to them, which was to publicly expose that very same information, except they would have profited nicely from it, and continued to enjoy their freedoms. American officials, and media hacks continue to call for Assange to be extradited for “aiding the enemy”, and for “treason”, a crime that is exclusively reserved for citizens of that country, which Assange isn’t.
Prejudicial double standards
Parental child abduction is not a crime when Japanese nationals do it, yet when foreigners attempt to have contact with their children it’s handled as a felony
Chris Savoie, who had custody of his two minor children left them with his former spouse Noriko for visitation purposes. That was the last time he would see them in the U.S. Noriko defied a Tennessee state court order, which barred her from leaving the state, and ordered her to turn over her passport to officials. This order occurred after Savoie received an email from her, which read, “It’s very hard to remain here watching my children lose their Japanese identity.” Savoie filed a restraining order. He subsequently contacted his former father in law, who told him the children were in Japan. Savoie’s only hope to ever see his children again was to go to Japan, and try to get them back in the same manner his former spouse had taken them. As his children were walking to school he placed them in his car, and drove off to the U.S. Embassy. The media would say that the Japanese police arrested Savoie as he was about to enter the American consulate. But, the true facts are the U.S. Embassy officials turned Savoie over to the Japanese police, who treated the case as a kidnapping. Savoie struggled with Japanese police, who literally ripped the terrified, and screaming children from his arms. Savoie was handcuffed in front of his children, and taken into custody at one of Japan’s notorious Daiyo Kangoku detention centers where the use of torture, and coerced confessions are daily matters with corrupt police, prosecutors, and a judiciary that sanctions all of it. Savoie was charged with abduction of a minor, and faced five years in prison for merely attempting to enforce a U.S. custody order. Savoie’s story was the last one that made international headlines regarding Japan, and child abduction. International, legal, and media pressure forced the prosecutors to release Savoie who returned home, and filed a false imprisonment action against his former wife. Savoie was awarded a 6.1M verdict. He said the money was a hollow victory. “Anything about this just reopens a lot of wounds. It’s bittersweet.” Savoie said he hasn’t been allowed to speak to his children in more than a year. That was back in 2011. “At the end of the day, I’d much rather have one afternoon in the park with my kids than one penny of this judgment.”
The return of an abducted child to the U.S.
No thanks to any intervention on the part of the State Department, Caroline Kennedy, or Susan Jacobs, one Japanese abductor got a taste of American style justice.
Emiko Inoue being led into court where she faced 25 years for child abduction.
Emiko Inoue thought she was clever when she abducted Moises Garcia’s daughter Katrina to Japan. After three years, and only one visit with his daughter in Japan, Garcia caught a break. His ex-wife flew from Japan to Hawaii to renew her U.S. green card. Inoue was unaware that her U.S. immigration file had been flagged because of a Wisconsin arrest warrant issued a few months earlier. Inoue was arrested, and extradited to Milwaukee, a city she once called home, where Karina was born, and where she, and Garcia were married. Milwaukee prosecutors ordered Inoue to return Garcia’s daughter to the U.S. within 30 days, or risk spending the next twenty-five years in prison. After eight months in prison she plead no-contest to felony child custody interference by a parent for fleeing America with Garcia’s daughter. Karina, was six at the time, and Inoue’s decision to circumvent U.S. family court set in motion an unprecedented criminal case, making her the first Japanese citizen to be arrested in the U.S. for child custody interference. It’s a felony in most states, but not considered a crime in Japan, unless the parent happens to be non-Japanese. Garcia gained full custody of Karina shortly after Inoue left the country in 2008. Eventually, he would also be granted full custody by a Japanese court, although it would reverse that decision, saying it was in the best interest of the child to remain in Japan.
Garcia successfully convinced the Milwaukee prosecutor’s office that although he had legal custody in both countries, there was no way for him to get his daughter back or even get visitation rights. The Milwaukee police department then issued a warrant for Inoue’s arrest in February of 2011, even though it was unlikely that Japan would agree to extradite her to face felony parental child abduction charges in the U.S. Unlike Japan’s Ministry of Justice, known for its corrupt, and prejudicial determinations against foreign nationals, the prosecutors in Inoue’s case allowed her to remain in the U.S., instead of deporting her for having a felony conviction. Inoue could also travel freely outside of the country with permission from the court, but not with her daughter. Inoue’s attorney in Japan, Haruki Maeda, said that Inoue only “very reluctantly” agreed to the deal. Under the plea bargain Katrina was sent back to her father, who had remarried. Maeda questioned whether, “Separating Katrina from her mother, and forcing her to live with her father, and stepmother, will lead to the well-being of the child?” Unlike in Japan, where a child has no right to make any self determination, in the U.S., when Karina turns twelve, she has the right to tell a U.S. judge what parent she desires to live with.
Garcia arranged for a Japanese tutor for his daughter, and for psychological counseling to help her cope with the transition. On the other hand, foreign parents that haven’t had any contact with their abducted children have noted that, when they do manage to obtain contact, the child can no longer communicate with them, and that no measures were taken to ensure the child smoothly integrated into Japanese society, which in reality calls children with two nationality parents, “hafus”, racist jargon meaning the child is somehow defective because they are not fully Japanese. Another well-known fact about Japan is that Japanese children will almost never associate with hafus, who suffer varying degrees of bullying, and are ostracized by Japanese children who can only learn such level of xenophobia, ignorance, and hatred from the parents who raised them that way.
Are parents of abducted children doing enough to gain custody, or visitation rights with their children?
From The Shadows is a documentary film highlighting several parents who have had their children abducted to Japan, including Paul Toland, and Regan Haight. I’ve contacted the producer, and directors Matt Antell, and David Hearn numerous times attempting to receive a viewer copy of the film for this article. I’ve never received a response from either of them, and the website http://fromtheshadowsfilm.com doesn’t seem to be a valid link. I can’t find this documentary anywhere, and it seems those that took the effort to produce it don’t consider it important enough to promote it. Another film titled, Sayanara Baby, which is an Australian News Special can be found online. The following is a link to the film: http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDA2MzE2Nzcy.html.
Regan Haight, a mother of two who’s featured in both documentaries mentioned above was married to Shuta, Japanese national. Haight returned home one day to find her children, and her husband gone. He abducted the children to Japan, and they weren’t ever going to return. Haight soon discovered that Japan, which claims to always award custody to the mother, wasn’t about to here her legal argument. The perverted Japanese family courts are always stacked heavily against those who are not Japanese, and those who are not the abductor. The Japanese officials sided with her former spouse, the abductor of her two children. Haight turned to a former British military special forces operative, Steve Johnson who is known in the business as a child recovery specialist. Johnson told Haight that Japan has the reputation of being impossible to recover children from. Johnson joined Haight in Japan, and Shuta claimed the children had been abducted a second time by their Japanese grandmother who was holding them for ransom. Haight said “At one point she told me that I had to sign over the house, and that I could see the kids. So, I did that. Then she wouldn’t let me see them. Next, we had to pay her fifty thousand dollars to see the kids. I didn’t have that money.”
The legal definition of kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away of a person against their will, usually to hold them for ransom, or in furtherance of another crime. Shuta, and his mother engaged in a conspiracy to extort as much as they could from the grieving mother. Captured on videotape, the children’s father was handed an ultimatum from Johnson, release the children to Haight or the matter would be turned over to the media, the police, and Interpol. Shuta, and his mother, realizing that they could be imprisoned for criminal extortion, and kidnapping, turned the children over to Haight. Today, the children enjoy a safe, and loving relationship with their mother. Haight is the only woman who has ever succeeded in having her children returned from Japan, a nation that would rather protect kidnappers, and extortion conspirators, than to protect abducted children who are in imminent danger, while being held for ransom. Japanese officials never brought charges against the criminal monsters the children had previously called, Otousan (father), and Obaachan (grandmother).
Australian Chayne Inaba, a trauma medical specialist had been battling the system in Japan to gain access to his daughter Ai. He tried to negotiate with his wife, and her family for visitataionrights, but they threatened him with violence if he didn’t stay away from her. One evening upon returning home from work, Chayne was attacked from behind in his own home, and beaten nearly to death with a brick. “I walked inside, closed the door, walking down towards the living room and I was attacked by a brick from the bathroom. I had two black eyes, skull fractures, a lot of damage”. Chayne has strong suspicions about who was responsible, and the message they were trying to send. “There’d be major problems if I went to the house where my daughter is being held. The police would be involved, a lot of nasty things would happen.” “The brick had skin, hair, and blood on it, and (the police) told the Australian consulate that the brick wasn’t the weapon”.
Craig Morrey, a man who defines the word hero perhaps more than any other person in the history of humankind became a single parent, sacrificing everything to care for his profoundly disabled son, after his pregnant wife ran off. She abandoned her disabled son, and abducted the healthy child, with no intention to ever allow Morrey into the child’s life. Morrey first saw his infant daughter in a courtroom when she had already reached six months of age. Morrey was attempting to gain visitation rights to his daughter. Although Morrey’s wife had abandoned her fist child, the Japanese court awarded her sole custody of Morrey’s daughter. The following link provides more information about Dr. Morrey: http://childrenfirst.jp/content/dr-craig-e-morrey. Dr. Morrey also operates a website in honor of his children, and other children that have been abused by Japan’s morally bankrupt judiciary: Forever Your Father. The following link is a CNN article about the life of Dr. Morrey, and the son he cherishes, Spencer: U.S. Father’s Japanese Custody Heartache.
After nineteen years in Japan, Alex Kahney packed his bags to return to the UK, leaving behind everything he cared for, which were his two beautiful daughters who were abducted by their Japanese mother. “I thought she can’t kidnap my kids, I’ll just go to the police. The first two or three months I was shattered, the first six months I was numb. I’ve been disowned. I might as well be a ghost.” In the documentary, Sayonara Baby, it’s painful to watch Kahney attempt to speak to his two daughters who were clearly being brainwashed to fear their father, and who are seen running away from him as they walk home from school. Two children that once adored their father were being taught by their Japanese mother to hate, and fear the man that spent years trying to regain them into his life, and to be the father that he always wanted to be for them. The following link is a BBC article on the ongoing plight of Mr. Kahney: http://bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-12358440.
Support groups for parents of abducted children
Bruce Gherbetti is the father of three children who were abducted to Japan in 2009. Since that time, he has moved to Japan to maintain contact with his children. He has also helped to form two organizations to fight for children’s rights in Japan, and has lobbied Diet members including former Justice Minister Satsuki Eda. Apparently, his efforts have been fruitless. Regardless, he presses on. The following link is a website Mr. Gherbetti operates in honor of his son: Bring Sean Home Foundation.
John Gomez, chairman of Kizuna Child-Parent Reunion, a group of Japanese, and non-Japanese parents, friends, and supporters advocate for the right of children to have access to both parents. Mr. Gomez understands that Japan simply ratifying the Hague Convention will not solve anything if the nation continues to take a one-sided approach to domestic custodial rights. The Kizuna Child-Parent Reunion website is located at: http://kizuna-cpr.org.
Eric Kalmus helps to operate Children’s Rights Network. The website is a major source of exposing the depths of Japanese injustice, and is located at the following link: http://crnjapan.net. Kalmus’ ceaseless work related to child abduction resulted in his own daughter, who had been abducted to Japan several years ago, discovered his work online, and reunited with him shortly thereafter.
I’m betting you didn’t know that it took thirty two years for Yoko Ono to be reunited with her kidnapped daughter. During the period when Richard Nixon was attempting to have John Lennon deported permanently from the U.S., the famous couple was enduring another legal battle, and that was over the abduction of her daughter, Kyoko. The children’s Rights Network has posted a link to that story here. John, and Yoko discuss the kidnapping on the David Cavett show, and videos of this interview can be found on YouTube.
Applicable U.S. laws
A 1993 U.S. federal law makes it a crime to prevent a person from exercising their parental rights by removing a child from the U.S. or keeping a child outside the country. A federal grand jury in Virginia charged Walter Benda’s former wife with kidnapping, a felony offense that carried with it a penalty of up to three years in prison, or a $250,000 fine. Japan refused to extradite the abductor stating that it does not treat parental child kidnapping as a criminal offense, and is not covered under the U.S.-Japan extradition treaty.
Article 766 of the Civil Law, revised in 2011 specifies that visitation rights, child-support payments, and other matters must take into consideration the welfare of the child first.
Section 19 of The Goldman Act addresses pattern of noncompliance, and defines the term pattern of noncompliance as the persistent failure to inter alia, abide by provisions of the Hague Abduction Convention, and where thirty percent or more of the total abduction cases in such country are unresolved, and where the judicial or administrative branch of the national government of a Convention country or a bilateral procedures country fails to regularly implement, and comply with the provisions of the Hague Abduction Convention or bilateral procedures, and where law enforcement authorities regularly fail to enforce return orders or determinations of the right of access rendered by the judicial or administrative authorities of the government of the country in abduction cases.
Under Title II of The Goldman Act, Subsection, Actions by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of State has an obligation to promote the best interest of the abducted children, and to ensure enforcement for their prompt return. It’s been over a year since Japan joined the rest of the G8 nations regarding The Hague. Japan’s dawdling can no longer be tolerated. Sec. 202 of The Goldman Act addresses nations such as Japan that are in noncompliance with the terms of international child abduction. Actions that must be taken by the State Department include public condemnation, delay or cancellation in bilateral working, official, or state visits, withdrawal, limitation, or suspension of United States development assistance in accordance with section 116 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, withdrawal, limitation, or suspension of United States security assistance in accordance with section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, a formal request to the foreign country concerned to extradite an individual who is engaged in abduction and who has been formally accused of, charged with, or convicted of an extraditable offense. Currently, Susan Jacobs, and John Kerry are in the position to handle the abduction issues, and both are well aware of them, yet neither has taken any action to aid U.S. citizens to have their children who were kidnapped returned to them. These useless career politicians need to resign, and get out of the way. There is however, one champion in Washington that has the best interest of the abducted children at heart, and that is Representative Chris Smith from New Jersey, who, for years has been a thorn in the side of nations like Japan.
Japan’s racist immigration policies and the deportation of responsible parents
”Dear Walter, please forgive me for leaving you this way,” read the note from Walter Benda’s Japanese wife. Benda’s unsuccessful efforts to get information from his wife’s family, the Japanese police, and his children’s schools, left him feeling as if he was trapped in a Kafka novel. After months of unsuccessfully searching for the whereabouts of his children, his visa expired, and he was forced to return to the U.S. Mr. Benda, and Brian Thomas, a Welshman involved in a similar abduction case, began fighting back. They identified a dozen cases of child abduction by Japanese parents. In most cases, they were Japanese women married to foreigners, but there were also several involving Japanese men, and foreign wives.
Deportation laws are often what former Japanese spouses rely on to get the other parent out of the way, and Japanese authorities are more than willing to accommodate. Deportation proceedings mean the children’s foreign parents may never be allowed to return to Japan. These “legal” measures are criminal, and violate human rights, and the right of parents, and children to be able to continue in their relationship undisturbed by a vindictive former spouse, or racist, segregationist, immigration policies. Just as in the days of the Tokugawa’s, Japan continues to act as a vile, and repugnant isolationist state that seems to enjoy participating in the destruction of families, instead of preserving them, which is another farce the west has become accustomed to believe about the primitive, and world illiterate island nation.
Often the term “spirited away” is used to describe a child that has been kidnapped. Writers, and advocates should stop using this aesthetic jargon, and use the terms kidnapping, or abduction instead, because these are legal terms that don’t trivialize the severity of the unconscionable criminal conduct. “Left behind parent” should also fall by the wayside, because hundreds of responsible, and caring parents were not forgotten, as if this was another release in a serious of “Home Alone” flicks. These grieving parents had their child kidnapped, and their life entirely destroyed as a result, often with the entire contents of the home, accompanied by the pilfering of the family bank account. The criminal perpetrators don’t just “leave behind” an unwilling participant, they ruthlessly destroy that person, and trash the fundamental rights they share with their child. This is a sure sign that the abductor is also engaging in systematic psychological abuse of the kidnapped child, and perhaps even physical violence. Terminology such as those stated above trivializes the harsh realities of child abduction, and they should no longer be associated with this form of criminal conduct.
The Civil Rights movement as the paradigm to address Japan’s unwillingness to end abductions
I’ve viewed numerous documentaries made on this topic. I’ve read countless articles, and interviewed scores of damaged parents who have lost their child due to abduction. I have watched hours of congressional hearings on international child abduction, and met with those at the forefront of the movement to end Japanese officials condoning conduct that violates international law. I have taken juvenile law, and family law courses in law school, and worked in both adult, and juvenile public defenders offices in southern California. I also worked at a family law clinic inside the Pomona Court while attending my final year of law school. Government officials, on either side of the issue are not doing enough, that, or they are not doing anything at all to help grieving parents to be reunited with children who each day grow further apart, due to the loss of communication, and physical closeness. The only recourse a non-abducting parent has is going the route Regan Haight did, hiring professionals to aid in the return of her children. Or is it? My suggestion to those whose children have been abducted is to follow the paradigm set by Martin Luther King. Fill Japan’s prisons with parents who are no longer willing to wait around for a disinterested third party to intervene.
If my child were abducted, I’d join ranks with approximately thirty other parents, and engage in collective civil disobedience. I’d prepare safe houses set up in various communities scattered about Japan where the children are being held. In groups of ten, I’d head for Japan, and I’d go after my child. I’d use whatever force was necessary to take back possession of my abducted child. If anyone failed, and the police got involved, I’d make sure to know enough Japanese language to inform them that this was a family matter, not a criminal matter, and remind the police what they have always claimed, which is that they have no jurisdiction over the matter. If the police arrested any of these individuals anyway, they’d be in good company, as certainly others in the group would be detained as well. I’d have a full statement prepared for the consulate officials, and the media. I’d have lawyers in the home country demanding the release of the children who are being held as hostages, and have those legal advocates demand the release of the parent who are being illegally detained. As soon as that first group’s story hit the media, I’d send a second wave of determined parents in another group of ten, and continue in the same manner. Surely, some would make it to a safe house, while those that were detained, and threatened with criminal prosecution, trained in civil disobedience, refused to participate in any police, or prosecutorial proceedings against them. They should also refuse to wear any prison garb. This would place extreme external pressure on the humiliated Japanese officials, forcing them to finally kowtow, and address the international consternation, and political ramifications for failing to address the matter after signing the child abduction aspects of The Hague. I’d have the arrested parents go on a hunger strike, and refuse to submit to legal proceedings, staunchly claiming the nation had no subject matter jurisdiction. Collectively, these parents would demand Japanese officials release the whereabouts of every child that had been intentionally hidden from their non-abudcting parent. Finally, I’d send the third wave of parents, and initiate the same procedures, crushing Japan’s illegitimate claims of sovereignty over the fundamental rights of non-abducting parents, and their children who remained in hostile conditions of psychological, emotional, and possibly physical abuse by their abducting tormenters.
Japan is no Goliath. Japan is an occupied nation that is nearly always on the wrong side of international disputes. Japan has proven over the past seventy years that it cannot be trusted as an autonomous, and rational behaving nation, and should remain occupied perpetually, as a result.
There is nothing more powerful than the bond between a parent, and a child that relies on both parents for security, love, and assurance. I believe there is nothing more honorable than a parent who is willing to sacrifice their freedom, and go to prison for the right to hold their child in their arms again, and to let them know what they were willing to resort to in order to hear their voice again, to listen to their laughter, and to smell the scent of their hair, and the very breath that they breathed. I believe this is a parent’s ultimate duty. Those who sit overseas, licking their wounds, and endlessly copying, and pasting articles that we’ve all already read, to the few “friends” on Facebook that may, or may not even bother to look at them, will continue to wait as the years pass without any contact with their children who may no longer even have the ability to communicate with them in their native tongue.
Preemptive protection of parental rights
Before marrying, and having children with a Japanese spouse, enter into a prenuptial agreement that include terms where neither parent could seek, or obtain sole custody of the children if the marriage were to be dissolved. Include a clause that states that neither party could abduct the children, nor prevent the other from having access to their children. Include another clause that states, if the children were abducted by one parent, in violation of that agreement, the non-abducting parent would determine, which country had both subject matter, and procedural jurisdiction over the matter. These kinds of agreements are binding in Japan, as well as most western style, civilized nations. Be sure to have two witnesses sign that agreement, and supply both parents with their own copy. Always obtain birth certificates for your children, and ensure they have citizenship in the non-Japanese parent’s country. Also, always have a valid, non-expired passport for your child at all times.
I conclude this article with a conversation that I had with former public prosecutor Hiroshi Ichikawa. Ichikawa became infamous when he was working for the city of Yokohama as a public prosecutor. Ichikawa had threatened a foreigner with death if he did not sign a false confession that Ichikawa had prepared for him to sign. When this matter was exposed, Ichikawa faced criminal charges, and was forced to resign. After that, he found a conscience, and began to publicly speak against the depths of government corruption that exists in Japan’s Ministry of Justice, and the fact that foreigners are not considered human beings by Japan’s prosecutors, and judiciary. When we spoke he admitted that foreigners have no human rights in Japan, and prosecutors are taught this as part of their training. In fact, foreigners are not even considered human beings. Foreigners that have had their children abducted should drink deep from this filthy well of knowledge, and never permit themselves to be subjected to any court proceedings in Japan, due to the prejudicial outcome of the proceedings that is sure to follow. Finally, retired judge Hiroshi Segi who recently released a book exposing the depths of depravity, and corruption in Japan’s judiciary, said the entire Japanese legal system should be scrapped because of its inherent, and systematic flaws. Segi also stated that every prosecutor, and judge in the nation should be removed from office, and that Japan should follow the model of justice as proscribed in the U.S., and the UK. Perhaps then, grieving parents, and their abducted children would finally have their fundamental human rights properly addressed in a court of real law, and their pleas for reunion granted with a binding judicial decree, and the banging of a gavel.
© 2016. All Rights Reserved.
THE HISTORY OF BANKING: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
I. Introduction: The Federal Reserve Act of 1913
In 1913, the U.S. Congress passed a bill called the Federal Reserve Act. This bill allowed an independent, non-government group to privatize, and take control of America’s monetary system. The Federal Reserve Bank’s name was chosen by this group so as to deceive the American people into believing that the Federal Reserve was a branch of the U.S. government. This privately held monopoly continues even today to give enormous power to a handful of international bankers, non-Americans, to issue America’s money, to set interest rates, to finance endless wars, and to enslave the American citizens, and the other nations of the world in a state of perpetual debt. This debt based monetary system is what has destroyed the American economy, and has brought with it depressions, and recessions for several generations. This will continue, until the Federal Reserve, and the fractional reserve lending practices of the centralized banks ceases to exist.
The privately held central bank deceptively known as the Federal Reserve.
Facts About the Federal Reserve
The Federal Reserve is a privately owned for profit corporation.
The Federal Reserve has no reserves.
The name was created prior to the Federal Reserve Act, which was passed in 1913. This was done to make Americans believe the U.S. banking system operated in the public interest. The Federal Reserve is a private bank owned by private shareholders, and runs purely for private profits. The result has been the creation of a debt based monopoly that must be paid for by the American tax payer. As of this writing, the U.S. national debt is nearly twenty trillion dollars. See: The U.S. Debt Clock for an update as to how much this debt has ballooned.
This privately held business pays no taxes on the trillions of dollars it makes.
The Federal Reserve was chartered by an act of deceit, when most of congress had gone home for Christmas holiday, on December 23rd, 1913. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913, had passed the house, but it was having difficulty getting through the senate. Regardless, no recess had been called, while nearly every senator had gone home. Only three senators passed the act with a unanimous vote of 3-0. There were no objections. If there had been one person present in the absence of a quorum, the bill would not have passed.
In 1923, Representative Charles A. Lindbergh, a Republican from Minnesota, and father of the famous aviator “Lucky” Lindberg stated, “The financial system has been turned over to the Federal Reserve Board. That board administers the finance system by authority of a purely profiteering group. The system is private, conducted for the sole purpose of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the use of other people’s money.”
Former chairman of the House Banking, and Currency Committee, during the great depression era, Louis T. McFadden stated in 1932, “We have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board. This evil institution has impoverished the people of the United States, and has practically bankrupted our Government. It has done this through the corrupt practices of the moneyed vultures who control it.”
Rep. Louis T. McFadden (1876-1936).
Rep. McFadden also stated, “When the Federal Reserve Act was passed, the people of these United States did not perceive that a world banking system was being set up here. A super-state controlled by international bankers, and industrialists acting together to enslave the world. Every effort has been made by the Fed to conceal its powers, but the truth is it has usurped the government.” Those same bankers used concerted efforts to malign McFadden. McFadden lost his congressional seat in 1934. Even so, he remained in the public eye as a vigorous opponent of the financial system, until his death, which occurred on October 3rd, 1936. Prior to his death, there had been two attempts on McFadden’s life. The first was when McFadden dodged two bullets fired at him at close range. The second attempt was when McFadden was poisoned at a banquet. McFadden was in New York City visiting his wife, and son in September 1936, when he was taken ill at his hotel and died of coronary thrombosis. The circumstances around his death remains suspicious. The result of McFadden’s death was the most outspoken, and articulate critic of the Federal Reserve being silenced forever.
Senator Barry Goldwater, was a frequent critic of the Federal Reserve, “Most Americans have no real understanding of the operation of the international moneylenders. The accounts of the Federal Reserve System have never been audited. It operates outside the control of Congress and manipulates the credit of the United States.”
Thomas Jefferson wrote, “I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. The issuing power should be taken from the banks, and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs.”
James Madison, the main author of the U.S. Constitution wrote, “History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance.”
The Federal Reserve is now the most powerful privately owned central bank in the world. However, it was not the first.
II. The Money Changers
Money changers are those that lend money at excessive fees, and manipulate the quantity of money available to the public. Approximately two thousand years ago, Jesus threw the money changers out of the temple of Jerusalem for corrupting Judaism. It it said that this was the only time he resorted to the use of force during his entire ministry. This would be the crime that he would be charged with that resulted in his execution by crucifixion.
Jesus attacking the money changers at a temple in Jerusalem.
As part of the Hebrews religious practices it was imposed upon them to go to their local place of worship, and pay a temple tax. This tax could only be paid with a special coin, the half shekel of the sanctuary, which was one half ounce of pure silver. The half shekel was the only coin issued that was pure silver, and didn’t have an image of an emperor upon it. In Judaism, the half shekel was the only coin considered acceptable by god.
The half shekels were not plentiful. The money changers cornered the market on the coins, and like any other commodity, the religious leaders raised the price to whatever the market would bare. The money changers made huge profits because they held a monopoly on the only money available as part of the Hebrew’s religious practices. The Hebrews had to pay whatever the money changers demanded. To Jesus this was an abomination that violated the sanctity of god’s house.
Half-Shekel used to monopolize the payment of temple taxes.
The money changing scam did not originate in Jesus’ time. Two hundred years before Christ, Rome was having trouble with money changers. Two early Roman emperors tried to diminish the power of the money changers by reforming usury laws, and limiting land ownership to 500 acres. Both emperors were assassinated. In 48 B.C., Julius Caesar took back the power to coin money from the money changers, and minted coins for the benefit of all. With this new, and plentiful supply of money, Caesar was able to construct great public works projects. By making money plentiful Caesar won the loyalty, and admiration of the common man, but the money changers hated him. Economic experts believe this was an important factor in Caesar’s assassination. Along with the death of Caesar came the demise of plentiful money in Rome. Taxes increased, and so did political corruption. Just as in America today, usury, and valueless coins became the rule, resulting in the steady devaluation of the U.S. monetary supply.
Over time Rome’s money supply was reduced by 90%. This resulted in common people losing their land, and their homes, and enslavement, just as it has happened throughout European history, as well as in the U.S. Most recently millions of Americans lost their homes during the 2007 financial crisis, which resulted in a worldwide economic depression, which still exists as of this writing. It must be noted that Goldman Sachs controlled 16% of the world’s monetary market prior to this crash. Thereafter, Goldman Sachs managed to take control of approximately 72% of the entire world’s currency. If the entire world economy collapsed where Goldman Sachs controlled 16% of the world’s monetary valuation, what will be the result of the next economic crash orchestrated by money lenders such as Goldman Sachs?
As today the masses lost confidence in their government due to the demise of common money. Numerous governments were overthrown, and those in power executed. As for Rome, one of the most powerful and developed cultures that have ever existed, plunged into the dark ages.
The U.S. has followed the same corrupt political, and monetary paradigm of the Roman Empire. Time and again Americans have lost their savings, and investments, and their property. Just as in Rome, when that empire met its demise, the U.S. government has taken no action do away with the monopoly, and privatization of the U.S. currency. The inevitable is that America, as its Roman predecessor will fall from greatness.
Source: IMF 2016 analysis for projections to 2050.
III. The Goldsmiths
Approximately one thousand years after the death of Christ, the money changers were active in Medieval England. The goldsmiths kept other people’s gold for safe keeping in private vaults. They were so active that they could control and manipulate the entire British economy. These were not bankers per se. However, the goldsmiths were in reality the first bankers.
The first paper money originated as a receipt, as proof that gold, and silver coins were left with the goldsmith to store in their secured vaults. Over time, paper money became the norm because it was more convenient to carry paper, than to carrying sacks of heavy gold, and silver coins. The goldsmiths noticed that only a small fraction of people returned to demand their gold. Goldsmiths started cheating on the system, discovering they could print more money than they had in actual gold. The goldsmiths then loaned out that extra money, and collected interest on it, not paying any interest to depositors. This began the birth of the fractional reserve banking, which is the practice of loaning out many times more money than the assets that are available on deposit. Fractional reserve banking is the principal of lending at interest money that does not exist. This is the basis of the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank.
A typical fractional reserve banking scheme: A goldsmith has 1000 in deposits. They draw up 10,000 in paper money, lending out 10 times more than they actually have in deposits. Goldsmiths gradually accumulated more wealth, and continued to use this criminal enterprise to accumulate more, and more gold.
It’s A Wonderful Life: The loss of an entire town’s deposits is what occurs when reckless bankers lend out more than it has on reserves.
Fractional lending is rooted in fraud, results in wide-spread poverty, and reduces the value of honest money. Yet, today every bank in the U.S. is allowed to loan out at least ten times more money than it has in reserves. This is how bankers get unjustly rich, charging interest on money they don’t actually have. The crash of Japan’s economy bubble in the 1980s was the direct result of the nations banks having nearly no reserves. It was discovered that some of Japan’s largest banks had reserves less than 2%. Prior to the bubble bursting, Japanese bankers were called to the headquarters of the IMF for a special meeting. At that meeting Japanese officials were told to bring their reserves up to 10% requirement, or face removal from World Bank membership, and monetary valuation controlled by the IMF.
In the middle ages Cannon Law of the Catholic Church forbade charging interest on loans. Usury was also illegal. This followed the teachings of Aristotle, and Saint Thomas Aquinas. The philosophy was that the purpose of money was to serve members of society, and to facilitate goods needed to lead a virtuous life. Interest was considered an unnecessary burden on the use of money, contrary to reason, and justice.
Europe followed the Cannon Laws of the Church, forbidding the charging of interest, making it a criminal offense. Lawmakers passed legislation known as Usury Laws. However, as commerce, and opportunity for investment arose in the late middle ages, it came to be recognized that lenders had risk in lending, and could lose opportunities for investments. Some fees related to lending began to be permitted, but charging interest still remained a crime. All moralists condemned fraud, oppression of the poor, and injustices that arose due to corrupt usury practices.
Ancient goldsmiths discovered that extra profits could be made by growing the economy between easy money, and tight money. When goldsmiths made money easy to borrow, money in circulation expanded, and people took out more loans to expand their businesses. Money changers would then tighten the money supply, and make money difficult to obtain. Goldsmiths knew that certain borrowers would not be able to repay loan debts. Goldsmiths would not allow these “loan defaulters” to take out new loans to repay the old ones. This led to bankruptcy, ruin, and the selling off of assets to goldsmiths for pennies on the dollar. The same criminal enterprise of usury lending, tightening the money supply, defaulting on loans, and property confiscation still occurs. Today economists call this “the business cycle.”
IV. King Henry I Of England: The Tally Sticks
King Henry I of England, father of the Tally Sticks.
The British Empire, which had been one of the most powerful nations in the world, was built on the Tally Stick System. Tally sticks were used to keep bankers from seizing control of the monetary system of England.
Around 1100 AD, King Henry I decided to take the power of money away from the lenders. King Henry I invented one of the most unusual money systems in history. It was known as the Tally Stick System. This system lasted until 1826. The Tally System was adopted to avoid the monetary manipulation of the goldsmiths. Tally Sticks were merely sticks of wood with notches cut on one edge of the stick to indicate denominations. Then the stick was split lengthwise so that both pieces retained a record of the notches. The king kept one half of a tally stick to protect against counterfeiting. The other half would be spent into the economy, and circulate as money. Under this system money could not be manipulated, and it could not be stolen. No other form of money had worked as well, and for so long as Tally Sticks.
The tally stick was a system of money created by King Henry I of England.
The Bank of England was formed in 1694, and immediately attacked the Tally Stick System because it was money that was outside of the control of the money changers. Despite this attack, the tally stick remained successful for nearly two hundred more years, despite the fact that the banks had coinage as competition.
In the 1500s, King Henry VIII relaxed usury laws. The money changers made metal coins plentiful for decades to follow. But, when Queen Mary tightened the money laws on usury, the money changers renewed the hoarding of gold, and silver coins, causing the economy to plummet. When Queen Elizabeth I took to the throne, she was determined to regain control of the economy. Her solution was to introduce gold, and silver coins from the public treasury, and take away control of the money supply from the money changers.
Financed by the money changers, Oliver Cromwell overthrew King Charles, purged Parliament, and put the king to death. The money changers were then able to consolidate their financial power. For the next 50 years, the money changers plunged Great Britain into a series of costly wars. They also took over one square mile of property in the center of London. This area is still recognized today as one of the three prominent financial centers of the world.
Conflicts with the Stewart King led the money changers of Britain to combine their power and influence with the money changers of the Netherlands. This merger of corrupt financial powers financed the invasion of William of Orange, who seized the English throne in 1688, the overthrow of the Stewarts.
William of Orange was born in The Hague, as the son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart, sister of Charles II and James VII of England. William came to power in the Netherlands during the aftermath of an occupation by French forces in 1672. William of Orange became King William III of England and of Ireland on January 22nd, 1689. He also became King William II of Scotland on April 4th, 1689, and in each case ruled as joint monarch with Mary II, until her death in December of 1694. Thereafter William ruled as a sole monarch.
V. The Bank of England
The Bank of England was established in 1694.
By the end of the 1600s, England was in financial ruin. The continuous wars with France and Holland had exhausted the nation. Frantic government officials met with the money changers and begged for the money necessary to pursue political purposes. The price was a government sanctioned, privately owned bank, which could issue money created out of nothing.
The Bank of England would be the first privately owned central bank. It was deceptively called the Bank of England, as is the U.S. Federal Reserve, to make it appear to the general population that it was a branch of the government. As any other private corporation, the bank sold shares to investors. Each investor was to put up one and a quarter million British pounds in gold coin to purchase their shares in the bank. The investors names were never revealed. However, only 750 thousand pounds was ever received. Despite this shortage, the bank was chartered in 1694, and began loaning out several times the amount of money it was supposed to have on reserve, all at interest. The new bank would lend politicians as much money as they needed, so long as those politicians secured the debt through taxation of the British people. As a result, the formation of the Bank of England became a form of legal counterfeiting of the national currency for private gain.
Unfortunately, today nearly ever nation has a privately owned central bank modeled after the fraudulent Bank of England. This form of banking takes over an entire nations economy, and is in reality a plutocracy ruled by the rich.
Nations do need a central bank. However, they do not need the banks to be privately controlled. The central bank sham is in reality a hidden tax where nations sell bonds to the central banks to pay for things politicians don’t have the political will to raise taxes to pay for. Those bonds are created by the central banks out of nothing. More money in circulation makes the money in circulation worth less. The government then obtains as much money as it needs, and the people pay for it with inflation.
VI. The Rothschild Cartel and Fraud on the Market
The Rothschild Red Shield.
Fifty years after the Bank of England opened its doors, a goldsmith named Anselm Moses Bauer opened a coin shop in Frankfurt Germany. Over the door of the business was a sign depicting a Roman eagle on a red shield. The shop became known as the Red Shield Firm. In the German language, Red Shield Firm translates into Rothschild.
When Amshel Mayor, Bauer’s son inherited the business he had the family name changed to Rothschild. Amshel soon learned that loaning money to governments, and kings was more profitable than loaning to private individuals. Not only were the loans larger, but they would be secured through national taxation schemes, which meant the average citizen had to pay the debt.
Amshel had four sons, and they were all trained in the skills of creating money, and finance. Amshel’s sons were sent to various destinations throughout Europe to open family owned banks. The oldest son, Amshel Mayer, remained in Frankfurt to preside over the hometown bank. The second son, Solomon, was sent to Vienna, Austria. In 1798, the third son, Nathan, was sent to London, and the fourth son, Karl, opened a bank in Naples, Italy. Finally, the the fifth son was sent to Paris, France. Germany, Austria, the UK, France and Italy would later play a significant role in the worst war this world had ever experience. Financing of that war, WWII, and its profits would be generated by the banks of the Rothchild banking cartel.
Initially, the Rothschild family, and the Schiff’s shared a house in Frankfurt. Both families would eventually play a significant role both European, and American history.
When Napoleon had forced Prince William of Hess Cassel into exile, Cassel sent 500,000 pounds to Nathan Rothschild with instructions to purchase consoles, also known as British government bonds. Nathan did not invest the money for Cassel’s interest, instead he used that money for his own purposes, which was to invest in war opportunities. When Cassel returned after the Battle of Waterloo, he summoned Rothschild, and demanded the return of his money. Rothschild paid the money, but kept the profits he had gained through usury.
By the mid 1800s, the Rothschild’s dominated European banking, and were the wealthiest family on earth. The Rothschild’s financed Cecil Rhodes making it possible for him to obtain a monopoly over the diamond, and gold fields of south Africa. In the U.S. the Rothschild’s financed the Harriman, and Vanderbilt families in railroad, and the press. The Rothschild’s also financed the industrialist Andrew Carnegie in the steel industry, the Rockefellers in oil, and many others western elites, whose families continue to play a significant role in banking, the medical and pharmaceutical industries, and the manufacturing of weaponry.
During WWI, J.P. Morgan was thought to have been the richest man in the U.S. However, not long after Morgan’s death it was discovered that he was merely a lieutenant of the Rothschild banking cartel. Once the terms of Morgan’s will had become public it was discovered that he controlled only 19% of the J.P. Morgan companies. By 1850 James Rothschild, the heir of the French Rothschild family was said to be worth 600 million French Franks. 150 million more than all of the other bankers in Europe combined.
VII. The American Revolution
An Artist’s Rendition of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
By the mid 1700s Britain had reached its height of power around the world. But, Britain had fought four costly wars since the creation of its privately owned central bank, the Bank of England, which was lending money at high interests to finance war related debts. The British parliament had borrowed heavily from the bank. By the mid 1700s government debt had ballooned to 140 million pounds, a staggering number at that time. Consequently, the British government embarked on a new taxation scheme to raise revenue on the American colonies in order to pay the interest owed to the bank. But, in the U.S., the scourge of the privately owned central bank had yet to hit the colonies.
In the U.S. there was a severe shortage of precious coins to pay for goods, so the early colonists experimented with printing their own paper money. Benjamin Franklin was a supporter of colonies printing their own money. In 1757, Franklin was sent to London where he stayed for the next seventeen years, until the start of the American Revolution. During this period, the colonies began to distribute money known as Colonial Scrip. The endeavor was successful, and provided a reliable means of exchange and helped to provide a unity between the independent colonies. The Colonial Scrip was debt free, printed in the public interest and was not backed by gold or silver coin. It was what is known as fiat currency. Fiat money is currency that a government has declared to be legal tender, but it is not backed by a physical commodity.
When officials in England asked Franklin how he could account for the prosperity of the colonies, Franklin replied, “In the colonies we issue our own money. It is called Colonial Scrip. We issue it in proper proportion to the demands of trade, and industry to make the products pass easily from the producers to the consumers. In this manner, creating for ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing power, and we have no interest to pay to no one.”
American Money. Colonial scrip issued November 9th 1775.
This was common sense to Franklin but the impact it had on the Bank of England was profound. Parliament immediately passed the currency act of 1774. This prohibited colonial officials from issuing their own money and ordered them to pay all future taxes in gold or silver coins. This forced the colonies on a gold and silver standard. Franklin wrote in his autobiography, “In one year, the conditions were so reversed that the era of prosperity ended, and a depression set in, to such an extent that the streets of the Colonies were filled with unemployed.” Franklin stated this was the real cause of the American revolution. Franklin wrote, “The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money which created unemployment and dissatisfaction. The inability of the colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George III and the international bankers was the PRIME reason for the Revolutionary War.”
By the time the first shots were fired on April 19th, 1775 the colonies were drained of gold and silver coins through British taxation. As a result the constitutional government began to print its own money to finance the war. At the start of the war the U.S. money supply was 12 million dollars. By the end of the war it was nearly 500 million. As a result the currency was virtually worthless. Shoes sold for 5000 dollars a pair. Colonial Scrip had worked because just enough was printed to facilitate trade. George Washington lamented, “A wagon load of money will scarcely purchase a wagon load of provisions.”
Today those that support a gold backed currency point to this period of the revolution to demonstrate the pitfalls of a fiat currency, but the same currency had worked so well during times of peace that the Bank of England had Parliament outlaw it.
VIII. The Bank of North America
The Bank of North America was chartered December 31st, 1781.
Towards the end of the revolution, the Continental Congress met at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, so as to discover a way to raise desperately needed money. In 1771, the Continental Congress allowed Robert Morris, their financial superintendent to open a privately owned central bank. Morris was a wealthy man who had grown richer during the war through trading in war materials.
The new bank was called the Bank of North America, and was modeled after the Bank of England. The Bank of North America was allowed to practice fractional reserve banking. This meant it could lend money the bank didn’t actually have, and charge interest on it. Incidentally, if anyone other than bankers were to do that today, they would be guilty of fraud, and misrepresentation, face felony charges, and a long prison sentence. The Bank of North America’s private charter called for investors to put up an initial 400,000 dollars. Morris was unable to raise the money, so he used his political influence to have gold deposited in the bank, which had been loaned to America by France. Morris then loaned 400,000 to himself, and his friends to reinvest in shares of the bank. This private bank then obtained a monopoly over the American currency. Soon the dangers became clear, as the value of the American currency plummeted.
In 1775, the bank’s charter was not renewed, but Morris and friends had become very wealthy, and overrepresented in American politics. The leader of the effort to shut down the bank was William Findley of Pennsylvania. Findley stated, “The institution, having no principle but that of avarice, will never be varied in its object, to engross all that wealth, power and influence of the state.”
The men behind the Bank of North America included, Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris, and the bank’s president, Thomas Wiling. These men did not give in. Only six years later Hamilton, at that time the secretary of the treasury, and his mentor Morris, pushed a new bill through legislation for another privately owned bank. This new bank was called the First Bank of the United States. Thomas Wiling served as the banks president. The players in the fraudulent scheme against the American people remained the same. The only thing that had changed was the name of the bank.
IX. The Constitutional Convention
The Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia in 1787.
In 1787 colonial leaders assembled to replace the Articles of Confederation. Both Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison remained steadfastly unmoved toward a privately owned bank. Both had seen the problems caused by the Bank of England. Jefferson stated, “If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and the corporations which grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.”
During the debate over the future monetary system another one of the founding fathers, Gouvernor Morris castigated the motivations of the owners of the Bank of North America. Morris was head of the committee that wrote the final draft of the Constitution. Morris knew the motivations of the bank, as his former employer Robert Morris, and Alexander Hamilton were the ones who had presented the original plan for the Bank of North America to the Continental Congress during the last year of the revolution. In a letter Morris wrote to James Madison on July 2nd 1787, her revealed what was the true motivation of the banking cartel, “The rich will strive to establish their dominion and enslave the rest. They always did. They always will. They will have the same effect here as elsewhere, if we do not, by the power of government, keep them in their proper spheres.”
Despite the defection of Gouvernor Morris from the ranks of the banks, Hamilton, Robert Morris, Thomas Wiling and their European backers were not about to throw in the towel. They convinced the bulk of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention not to give Congress the power to issue paper money. Most of the delegates were still aware of the paper currency problems that arose during the issuance of paper currency during the revolution. The had apparently forgotten how well Paper Scrip had worked prior to the war. But, the Bank of England had not, and would not permit the Americans to print their own money. The Constitution remained silent on this matter. This defect in the monetary system in the U.S. left the door open for the money changers, just as they had planned.
X. The First Bank of the United States.
The First Bank of the United States received its twenty-year charter in 1791.
Only three years after the signing of the new constitution, the newly appointed first secretary of treasury, Alexander Hamilton proposed a bill calling for a new privately owned central bank. This bill was brought to congress in the same year Amshel Rothschild made a pronouncement from his bank in Frankfurt. “Let me issue and control a nation’s money and I care not who writes the laws.”
Alexander Hamilton was a tool for the international bankers. One of his first jobs after graduating from law school, in 1782 was as an aide to Robert Morris the head of the Bank of North America. A year before Hamilton had written a letter to Morris saying, “A national debt, if it is not too excessive will be to us a national blessing.”
Congress passed the banking bill proposed by Hamilton and gave it a twenty-year charter. The new bank was to be called, The First Bank of the United States. The bank was given a monopoly on printing U.S. currency, even though 80% of its stock was held by private investors. The other 20% was purchased by the U.S. government. The reason was not to give the government a piece of the profits, it was a scheme to provide the cash needed for the other 89% owners. As with the old Bank of North America, and the Bank of England, the stock holders never paid the full amount of their shares. The U.S. government put up the private shareholders initial two million dollars in cash, and then through fractional reserves made loans to its charter investors so they could come up with the remaining 8 million dollars needed for this risk free investment. The name of the bank was deliberately chosen to hide the fact that it was privately controlled, and like the Bank of England, the names of the private investors were never revealed. However, it was well-known that the Rothschild cartel was the driving power behind the Bank of the United States.
The bank had been presented as a way to stabilize the nations currency, and to control inflation. However, over the first five years, the U.S. government borrowed 8.5 million dollars from the Bank of the United States, and over that same five-year period, prices rose by 72%. Jefferson as the new secretary of state watched the borrowing with sadness and frustration, unable to stop it. Jefferson wrote, “I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution taking from the federal government their power of borrowing.” Millions of Americans feel the same way today as they helplessly watch Congress borrow the U.S. economy into oblivion.
XI. Napoleon’s Rise to Power
The Bank of France was organized in 1800 in the same manner in the same deceitful manner the Bank of England had been. Napoleon decided France had to break free of debt. He never trusted those that controlled the Bank of France.
Napoleon declared, “When the government relied on the bankers for money, the bankers, not the political leaders were in control of the government.” Napoleon said, “The hand that gives is above the hand that takes. Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain.”
Napoleon Emperor of France (1769-1821).
Back in the states, Thomas Jefferson narrowly defeated John Adams to become the third president of the U.S. BY 1803, Jefferson and Napoleon had struck a deal. The U.S. would give Napoleon three million dollars in gold in exchange for a huge piece of land west of the Mississippi River. That deal was known as the Louisiana Purchase. With that money, Napoleon forged an army, and set off to conquer Europe. The Bank of England quickly rose to oppose Napoleon, financing every nation in his path reaping enormous war profits. Prussia, Austria and Russia all went into debt in a futile attempt to stop Napoleon. Four years later with the French army in Russia, Nathan Rothschild personally took charge to smuggle a supply of gold through France to finance, an attack on France by the Duke of Wellington from Spain. Wellington’s attack from the south, and other defeats eventually caused Napoleon to abdicate, and Louis XVIII was crowned king. Napoleon was exiled to Alba, a tiny island off the coast of Italy. While in exile, and temporarily defeated by England through the financial support of the Rothschild Cartel, America continued to break free of its privatized central banking system as well.
XII. The End of the First Bank of the United States
In 1811 a bill was given to Congress to renew, The Bank of the U.S. The debate was heated, and representatives of Pennsylvania, and Virginia passed resolutions asking Congress to abolish the bank. The press at that time openly called the bank a swindle, a vulture, a viper and a cobra. A congressman named P.B. Porter attacked the bank from the floor saying, “If the bank’s charter was renewed congress would have planted in the bosom of this constitution a viper, which one day or another would sting the liberty of this country to the heart.”
Nathan Rothschild warned that the U.S. would find itself involved in a most disastrous war if the banks charter were not renewed. The renewal bill was defeated by a single vote in the house, and was deadlocked in the senate. At that time America’s fourth president was in the Whitehouse, James Madison. Madison, like Jefferson was a staunch opponent of the bank, his vice president George Clinton broke the tie in the senate, and sent the bank into oblivion. Within five months, England attacked the U.S., and the War of 1812 was on. At that time, the British were still battling Napoleon, so the U.S. war ended in a draw in 1814. The money changers were down, but they were far from out. It would take merely two years to bring back the privately controlled banking system in the U.S. It would be bigger, and more powerful than ever before.
XIII. The Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon’s final defeat took place during the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Nothing in history reflects the cunning of the Rothschild family in their control of the British stock market after Waterloo.
In early 1815 Napoleon escaped from exile, and returned to Paris. The French soldiers sent to capture him, intrigued by the charismatic figure rallied around their old leader, and hailed him as their new emperor. In March of 1815, Napoleon equipped a new army, but were defeated less than ninety days later at Waterloo. Some writers suggest that Napoleon borrowed five million pounds from the Bank of England to finance his new army, but it appears these new funds actually came from the Ubard Banking House in Paris. Whatever the source of revenue, from that point forward it would not be unusual for privately owned banks to finance both sides of a war. Why would a central bank finance both sides of a war? Because war is the greatest generator of debt. A nation will borrow any amount for victory. The ultimate loser is given enough financing for the hope of victory, while the ultimate winner is given just enough to win. Such loans are usually conditioned upon the guarantee that the victor will honor the debt of the vanquished.
At Waterloo, Napoleon suffered his final defeat, but not before thousands of French, and Englishmen lost their lives. 74,000 French troops met 67,000 British, and other European nation troops. The outcome of the war was in doubt. Nathan Rothschild planned to use the opportunity of the outcome of the war to try to seize control of the British stocks, and bonds markets of England. Rothschild stationed an agent named Rothworth on the banks of the north side of the battlefield close to the English Channel. Once the battle had been decided Rothworth delivered the news to Rothschild, before the victorious British could deliver the news to the English Monarch, and money markets. If the British had been defeated, and Napoleon was loose on the continent again, Britain’s financial situation would’ve become grave.
With the news of the outcome of the battle at Waterloo, Rothschild rushed to the stock market, where he took his usual position on the floor. With all eyes watching, Rothschild began to sell off all of his shares. Other nervous investors observed Rothschild, and panicked, as this could have only meant that the British lost to Napoleon. The market plummeted, and all investors sold the consoles they owned, as well as any other British bond. Prices dropped sharply as the markets took a nose dive. Rothschild appeared distraught, but in reality he was secretly buying up consoles through his agents for pennies on the dollar of what they were worth, only mere hours earlier. By the time word got out that England had defeated Napoleon, Nathan Rothschild dominated the bond market, as well as the Bank of England. By the mid 1800s, the Rothschild’s were the richest family in the world. The rest of the 19thCentury was known as the age of the Rothschild banking cartel.
One hundred years later the New York Times ran a story, which disclosed that Nathan Rothschild’s grandson had attempted to secure a court order to block the release of a book written on the subject of banking fraud. The book included a chapter on the collapse of the English stock market at the end of the Battle of Waterloo. The Rothschild heir had claimed the story written about Nathan Rothschild was libelous, and untrue. The court denied the claim, holding, a dead person could not be libeled. Rothschild was ordered to pay all court costs, which included the legal fees of the publisher, and author of the book.
XIV. The Second Bank of the United States
The Second Bank of the U.S was chartered in 1816.
One year after Waterloo, and the Rothschild’s takeover of the Bank of England, the American congress passed another bill allowing for the formation of another privately owned bank, The Second Bank of the U.S.
The new banks charter was a copy of the previous banks, with the U.S. government owning 20% shares. The shares were paid upfront by the treasury, and taxation. Then through the fraudulent practice of fractional banking, the money was formed into loans, with the loan money being used by the private bankers to purchase the remaining 80% of the bank shares. Just as before, the primary shareholders remained a secret. The largest blocks, about one-third of the shares, were sold to foreigners. The Second Bank of the U.S. was deeply rooted in Britain. By 1816, the Rothschild banking cartel had taken control over the Bank of England, and the new privately held, Second Bank of the U.S.
XV. Andrew Jackson: “I Killed the Banks.”
Andrew Jackson, 7thPresident of the United States.
After twelve years of The Second Bank of the U.S. manipulating the American economy, the American people had had enough. Opponents of the bank nominated a senator from Tennessee, Andrew Jackson, to run for president. Jackson was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. Initially, no one gave Jackson a chance to win the presidency. The banks had long been able to control the political process with money. However, to the surprise, and dismay of the money changers, Jackson was swept into office in 1828.
Jackson was determined to kill the bank at his first opportunity, and wasted no time attempting to do so. However, the banks twenty-year charter didn’t come up for renewal until 1836. The last year of his second term, if he could survive that long. During Jackson’s first term her rooted out the banks minions from government service. Jackson fired 2000 of the 11,000 employees of the federal government. In 1832, with Jackson’s reelection approaching, the banks struck an early blow, hoping Jackson would not want to stir up controversy. The banks asked congress to sign a renewal bill. This was four years earlier than the bank’s renewal was to come up. Congress complied, and sent the bill for Jackson to approve. Jackson vetoed the bill. That veto remains one of America’s greatest documents. Jackson knew the responsibility of the American government towards its citizens, both rich and poor. In signing that bill Jackson said, “It is not our own citizens only who are to receive the bounty of our Government. More than eight million of the stock of this bank are held by foreigners. Is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank that in its nature has so little to bind it to our country, controlling our currency, receiving our public moneys, and holding thousands of our citizens in dependence? This would be more formidable and dangerous than a military power of the enemy. If government would confine itself to equal protection, and, as heaven does its rains, shower its favor alike on the high and the low, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.”
In July of 1832, Congress was unable to override Jackson’s veto. Thereafter, Jackson had to run for reelection, and took his argument directly to the people. For the first time in presidential history, Jackson took his campaign for reelection on the road. His campaign slogan was, “Jackson and No Bank.” The national republican party ran Senator Henry Clay against Jackson. Despite the fact that the bankers spent more than three million dollars on Clay’s campaign, Jackson was reelected by a landslide in November of 1832. Regardless, the battle was only beginning. “The hydra of corruption is only scorched, not dead.”
Jackson ordered his new secretary of treasury, Louis McClain, to start removing the government deposits from the second bank, and to place them in state banks. McClain refused to do so. Jackson fired him, and appointed William J. DeWayne as the new secretary of the treasury. DeWayne also refused to comply with the president’s order. Jackson fired him as well, and appointed Roger B. Taney to the office. Taney began withdrawing government money from the banks on October of 1833. The banks head Nicolas Biddle used his influence to get the senate to reject Taney’s nomination. Then, in a rare show of arrogance, Biddle threatened to cause a depression if the bank was not rechartered. “This worthy president thinks that because he has scalped Indians, and imprisoned Judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He is mistaken.” Biddle admitted that he was going to make money scarce, and force congress to restore the bank. “Nothing but widespread suffering will produce any effect on congress. Our only safety is in pursuing a steady course of firm restriction, and I have no doubt that such a course will ultimately lead to restoration of the currency and the recharter of the bank.” Biddle clearly intended to use the money contraction power of the bank to cause a massive depression, until the U.S. gave in.
Biddle made good on his threat. The bank began to contract the money supply by calling in old loans, and refusing to extend new ones. A financial panic ensued, followed by a deep depression. Biddle blamed Jackson for the crash, saying it was caused by the withdrawal of the federal funds from the bank. As a result, wages and prices plummeted, unemployment soared, and businesses went bankrupt.
The nation newspapers blasted Jackson in editorials. The banks threatened to withhold payments from politicians who refused to support the bank’s position. Within months, congress formed what was called, the Panic Session. Six months after Jackson had withdrawn federal money from the privately owned banks, he was officially censored. The resolution was passed 26-20, and was the first time a president had been censured by congress. Jackson lashed out at the bankers, “You are a den of vipers and I intend to route you out, and by God I will route you out.”
If congress could raise enough votes, congress could pass another bill and renew the banks monopoly over America’s money for another twenty years or even more. What the nation needed was a miracle, and it got one. The governor of Pennsylvania came out in support of Jackson, and Biddle had been caught boasting in public about the bank’s plan to crash the economy. Suddenly, the tide shifted, and in 1834, the House of Representatives voted 124-82 against rechartering the bank. This was followed by a more lopsided vote to establish a committee to investigate whether the bank had intentionally caused the crash. When the investigating committee, armed with a subpoena to examine the banks books, Biddle refused to give them up. Nor would he allow inspection of correspondence with members of congress, related to their personal loans, and advances Biddle had made to them. Biddle also refused to testify before the committee.
Jackson was the only president to ever pay off the debt. On January, 8th1835, Jackson paid off the final installment on the national debt, which had been necessitated by allowing the banks to issue currency for government bonds rather than issuing treasury bonds without such debt. A few weeks later, on January 30th, 1835, an assassin named Richard Lawrence tried to shoot Jackson. Ironically, both pistols that Lawrence had to commit the crime, misfired. At trial, Lawrence was found not guilty by reason of insanity. After his release Lawrence bragged to friends that powerful people in Europe had put him up to the task, and promised to protect him if he were caught.
The following year the banks charter ran out and, The Second Bank of the U.S. ceased functioning as the nations central bank. Biddle would later be arrested, and charged with fraud. Biddle was tried and acquitted, but died shortly thereafter while tied up in civil suits. It took the money changers seventy-seven more years before they could undue the damage Jackson had caused them. When Jackson was asked what his most important accomplishment had been, he is famously quoted as saying, “I killed the bank.”
XVI. Abraham Lincoln: Civil War, Greenbacks and Assassination
Abraham Lincoln, 16thPresident of the United States.
Although Jackson killed the central bank, fractional reserve banking remained in use by the numerous state chartered banks. This fueled economic instability in the years before the civil war. Still, the central bankers were out, and as a result American thrived as it expanded westward. The central bankers struggled to regain power of the bank, but to no avail. Finally, they reverted to the old central banker’s formula of war to create debt and dependency. If they couldn’t get their bank any other way, America could be brought to its knees by plunging it into a civil war, just as they had done in 1812, after, The First Bank of the U.S. was not rechartered.
One month after the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln, the first shots of the Civil War was fired at Fort Sumter South Carolina. This occurred on April 12th, 1861. Americans have always been taught that slavery was the cause of the Civil War. This is true in part, but slavery was not the primary cause.
Lincoln knew that the economy of the southern states was dependent upon slavery. Before the Civil War, Lincoln had no intention of eliminating it. Lincoln addressed slavery in his inaugural address, “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.”
Lincoln continued to insist that the Civil War was not about the issue of slavery. “My paramount objective is to save the union, and it is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the union without freeing any slave, I would do it.”
Northern protectionists were using their influence to prevent the southern states from purchasing cheaper goods, and European nations began to boycott cotton imports from the south. The southern states were in a double financial bind. They were forced to pay higher prices for the necessities of life, while their cotton exports plummeted. But there were other factors at work. The money changers were still infuriated that they had no control over America’s central bank. America’s “wildcat” economy had made the nation rich since the money changers lost control only twenty-five years earlier. The central bankers would then use the division between the northern, and southern states as an opportunity to split this rich new nation, and to gain control of the central bank again. The banker’s intention was to divide, and conquer the nation through war, which they would finance.
Otto Von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, who united the German states said, “The division of the United States into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the high financial powers of Europe. These bankers were afraid that the United States, if they remained as one block, and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world.”
Within months after the first shots at Fort Sumter, the central bankers loaned the nephew of Napoleon, Napoleon III of France, 210 million francs to seize Mexico, and station troops along the southern border of the U.S., taking advantage of the states war in violation of, The Monroe Doctrine. This was an attempt to return Mexico to colonial rule. No matter what the outcome of the Civil War, a weakened America, heavily indebted to the central, and international bankers, would open up Central, and South America to European colonization, and domination. This was the very thing that, The Monroe Doctrine had intended to prevent when it was enacted in 1823. During this same period, Britain moved 17,000 troops into Canada, and positioned them menacingly on the U.S. northern border. The British fleet went on war alert, should their quick intervention be called for.
Lincoln was in a double bind, and agonized over the fate of the union. There was a lot more to the war, than the differences between the northern and southern states. That was why Lincoln’s emphasis was always on preservation of the union, and not merely the defeat of the south.
Wars cost money, and Lincoln needed money to win, and in 1861, Lincoln, and his secretary of treasury Solomon P. Chase, went to New York to apply for the necessary loans. The money changers anxious to see the union fail, offered loans at 36% interest. Lincoln refused to accept those rates, and returned to Washington. Lincoln turned to an old friend, Colonel Dick Taylor of Chicago and placed him on the issue of obtaining the finances that were necessary for the war. During that meeting Taylor told Lincoln, “Just get congress to pass a bill authorizing the printing of full legal tender treasury notes, and pay your soldiers with them, and go ahead, and win your war with them also.” Lincoln asked if the people of the U.S. would accept the notes, Taylor said, “The people or anyone else will not have any choice in the matter, if you make them full legal tender. They will have the full sanction of the government and be just as good as any money; as congress is given that express right by the Constitution.” Between 1862-1863, Lincoln printed 400 million dollars in new bills. In order to distinguish them from other bank notes in circulation Lincoln’s bills were printed in green ink on the back side. Thus, the notes became known as green backs. With this new money, Lincoln paid the troops, and bought their supplies.
During the course of the war nearly 450 million dollars in green backs were printed at no interest to the federal government. Lincoln explained his rationale, “The Government should create, issues and circulate all of the credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the government, and the buying power of the consumers. The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but is the government’s greatest creative opportunity. By the adoption of these principles, the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be the master, and become the servant of humanity.”
An editorial in the London Times explained the banker’s attitude toward the greenbacks. “If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origin in North America, shall become underrated down to a fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts, and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains, and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed, or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.”
The scheme was so effective that in 1863, federal, and confederate troops began to mass for the decisive battle of the Civil War. The treasury was in need of further authority to issue more green backs. Lincoln allowed the bankers to push through the National Bank Act. These new banks would operate under a tax-free status, and collectively have exclusive monopoly power to create the new form of money, bank notes. Though green backs continued to circulate, there numbers were not increased. Most importantly, the entire U.S. money supply would be created out of debt where bankers would be buying U.S. government bonds, and issuing them for reserves for bank notes. John Kenneth Galbraith wrote, “In numerous years following the war, the federal government ran a heavy surplus. It could not however, pay off its debt, retire its securities, because to do so meant there would be no bonds to back the national bank notes. To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply.”
Later in 1863, Lincoln received unexpected help from Czar Alexander II of Russia. The Czar, like Bismarck in Germany knew what the international money changers were up to. Alexander II, steadfastly refused to allow international bankers to set up a central bank in Russia. If America survived, and was able to remain out of the crutches of the bankers, the Czar’s position would remain secure. If the bankers were successful in dividing America, and giving the pieces back to Britain and France, and both nations back to the control of the central banks, eventually they would threaten Russian again. So, the Czar gave orders that if either Britain or France, actively intervened by giving aid to the South, Russia would consider such action a declaration of war. Alexander II then sent part of his naval fleet to port in San Francisco.
Lincoln was reelected the following year in 1864. Had he lived he would have eliminated the national banks money monopoly, extracted from him during the Civil War. In November of 1864, Lincoln wrote a friend the following note, “The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy.” Shortly before Lincoln was murdered, his former secretary Salmon P. Chase, bemoaned his role in helping secure the passage of the National Banking Act. “My agency, in promoting the passage of the National Banking Act, was the greatest financial mistake in my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country.”
On April 14th, 1865, just forty-one days after Lincoln’s second inauguration, and just five days after Lee surrendered to Grant, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater. Otto Van Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany lamented the death of Abraham Lincoln, “The death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom. There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots. I fear that foreign bankers with their craftiness, and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America, and use it systematically to corrupt modern civilization. They will not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars, and chaos, in order that the earth should become their inheritance.” Bismarck understood the bankers plan, and that the international bankers were responsible for Lincoln’s assassination, which finally surfaced seventy years later, in 1934.
Gerald G. McGeer, a popular, and well-respected attorney revealed the stunning charge in a five-hour speech before the Canadian House of Commons, blasting Canada’s debt based money system. During the height of the depression McGeer stated that he could end the depression, which was ravaging Canada. McGeer had obtained evidence that was deleted from the public record, which was provided by secret service agents that had attended the trial of John Wilkes Booth. John Wilkes Booth was a mercenary who had been hired by the international bankers. According to an article of the Vancouver Sun, on May 2nd, 1934, “Abraham Lincoln was assassinated through the machinations of a group representative of the international bankers who feared the United States President’s national credit ambitions, and the plot was hatched in Toronto, and Montreal. The bankers were the only group in the world at that time that desired the death of Lincoln. They were the group that had opposed Lincoln’s national currency program, and had fought him throughout the entire Civil War, regarding his policy of green back currency. McGeer stated that the international bankers not only wanted to reestablish a federal central bank, but also wanted to debase America’s currency on the gold they controlled. What this meant was the bankers wanted to put America on a gold standard. Lincoln had done just the opposite when he issued green backs, which were based purely on the good faith, and credit of the U.S. nation. McGeer wrote, “They were the men interested in the establishment of the gold standard money system, and the right of the bankers to manage the currency and credit of every nation in the world. With Lincoln out-of-the-way they were able to proceed with that plan, and did proceed with in the United States. Within eight years after Lincoln’s assassination silver was demonetized and the gold standard money system set up in the United States.” Why is silver bad for bankers, and gold good? Because silver was plentiful in the U.S., and very hard to control. Gold was, and always has been scarce. Historically, it has always been easy to manipulate the value of gold, but silver has always been more than fifteen times more abundant.
Not since Lincoln had the United States issued debt free notes. In another act of folly and ignorance the, 1994 Regal Act, actually authorized the replacement of Lincoln’s green backs with debt based notes. This meant that Lincoln’s greenbacks were in circulation in the U.S. until 1994.
XVII. The Gold Standard
After the assassination of Lincoln, the money changers next objective was to gain complete control over America’s finances. This was no easy task as with the opening of the American west, silver had been discovered in huge quantities, and Lincoln greenbacks remained popular. Despite these matters, the bankers continued to attack Lincoln’s greenbacks that continued to circulate in the U.S. W. Cleon Skousen wrote, “Right after the Civil War there was considerable talk about reviving Lincoln’s brief experiment with the constitutional monetary system. Had not the European money-trust intervened, it would have no doubt become an established institution.”
On April 12th1866, nearly one year to the day of Lincoln’s assassination, congress began to work for the interest of the international banking interests. Congress passed, The Contraction Act, which authorized the secretary of the treasury to retire the remaining greenbacks that were in circulation. The intention was to contract the money supply. Authors, Theodore R. Thoren and Richard F. Warner explained the results of the money contraction in their book, The Truth in Money Book. “The hard times that occurred after the Civil War could have been avoided if the greenback legislation had continued as president Lincoln had intended. Instead, there were a series of manufactured money panics, known as recessions, which put pressure on congress to enact legislation to put the banking system under the banker’s exclusive control. Eventually, the Federal Reserve Act would be passed on December, 23rd, 1913. Under this act the money changers gained control of the central banking system, and American currency backed by gold. The first step of the banker’s strategy was to cause a series of panics through the recessions they created, and thereafter convince the American people that only a centralized control of the U.S. money supply could provide economic stability. The second step was to remove as much money as possible from the system that most Americans would be so desperately poor that they didn’t care, or would be too weak to oppose the bankers.”
By 1866 there was approximately 1.8 billion dollars in currency circulating in the U.S. This was about 50.46 per capita. In 1867 the bankers managed to remove approximately one billion dollars from circulation resulting in 44.00 per capita. By 1876 America’s money supply had been reduced to 600 million dollars. Only 14.60 per capita remained in circulation. In 1886 the money supply continued to be reduced to only 400 million in supply, with only 6.67 per capita remaining in circulation. This meant that the bankers removed 760% of America’s money from circulation within a mere 20 years.
Today economists try to sell the idea that recessions, and depressions are a natural part of “the business cycle.” The truth is, the bankers today, continue to manipulate the money supply, just as they had before, during, and after the Civil War.
How did the bankers manage to get the money supply to become so scarce? Simply, loans were called in, and no new loans were issued. In addition, silver coins were melted, and removed from circulation.
In 1872, Ernest Seyd was given 100,000 pounds, about 500,000 dollars by the Bank of England, and sent to America to bribe congressmen to get silver demonetized. Seyd was told that if that was not sufficient, to draw an additional 100,000 pounds, or as much as would be necessary to achieve the Bank of England’s goal. The next year, congress passed the, Coinage Act of 1873. IT was Seyd who actually drafted the legislation. In 1874, Seyd admitted who was behind the scheme. “I went to America in the winter of 1872-1873, authorized to secure, if I could, the passage of a bill demonetizing silver. It was in the interest of those I represented, the governors of the Bank of England, to have it done. By 1873, gold coins were the only form of coin money.”
In 1876, only three years later with one-third of America’s workforce unemployed, the population was growing restless. People desired a return to the greenback monetary system, a return to the silver standard, or any other monetary system that would make money more plentiful. That year congress created the U.S. Silver Commission to study the problem. Their report blamed the money retraction on the international money bankers. The report compared the deliberate money contraction after the Civil War to the fall of the Roman Empire.
The disaster of the Dark Ages was caused by decreasing money, and falling prices. Without money, civilization could not have had a beginning and with a diminishing supply, it must languish, and unless relieved, finally perish. During the Christian era the metallic money of the Roman Empire amounted to one billion, eight hundred million. By the end of the 15thCentury it had shrunk to less than 200 million. History records no other such disastrous transition as that from the Roman Empire to the dark ages. U.S. Silver Commission. Despite this report, Congress took no action and the following year, in 1877, the starving masses rioted from Pittsburg to Chicago. The torches of starving vandals lit up the sky across America. The bankers huddled to decide what to do. They decided to hang on. Now that they were back in power, they were not about to give it up, and at a meeting of the American Banking Association, they urged their membership to do everything in their power to put down the notion of a return to greenbacks.
The American Banker’s Association secretary, James Beul authored a letter, which blatantly called on the banks to subvert not only congress, but also the press. “It is advisable to do all in your power to sustain such prominent daily and weekly newspapers, especially the Agricultural and Religious Press, as will oppose the greenback issue of paper money, and that you will also withhold patronage from all applicants who are not willing to oppose the government issue of money. To repeal the Act creating bank notes, or to restore to circulation the government issue of money will be to provide the people with money, and will therefore seriously affect our individual profits as bankers and lenders. See your congressmen at once and engage him to support our interest that we may control legislation.” As political powers tried to push for change, the press, working with the bankers, tried to turn the American people away from the truth.
In 1878, the New York Tribune wrote, “The capital of the country is organized at last and we will see whether congress will dare to fly in its face.” But, it didn’t work entirely. On February, 28th1878, congress passed the Sherman Law, allowing the minting of a limited amount of silver dollars ending the five-year hiatus. This did not end the gold backing of the currency, nor did it completely free silver. As a result, the bankers finally freed up money for loans, and the post-Civil War depression had finally come to an end.
James Garfield, the 20thPresident of the United States.
Three years later, the American people would vote James Garfield as their 20thpresident. Garfield would survive a mere 200 days in office before being assassinated. Garfield understood how the economy was being manipulated by the international bankers. As a congressman, Garfield had been a chairman of the appropriation committee, and had been a member of banking and currency. After his inauguration he slammed the money changers publicly. “Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce. And when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate.” Within a few weeks of making this statement, on July 2nd, 1881, Garfield would be assassinated.
XVIII. Crown Of Thorns Cross Of Gold
An illustration of William Jennings Bryan’s crusade against the gold standard.
In 1891, the money changers prepared to take the American economy down again. There method, and motive was laid out in shocking clarity discovered in a memo sent to American Banking Association members. This memo called for bankers to create a depression on a certain date three years in the future. According to the Congressional Record, dated April 29, 1913, “On September 1st1894, we will not renew our loans under any consideration. On September 1st, we will demand our money. We will foreclose, and become mortgagees in possession. We can take two-thirds of the farms west of the Mississippi, and thousands of them east of the Mississippi as well, at our own price. Then the farmers will become tenants as in England.” These depressions could be controlled because America was on the gold standard, because when gold is scarce it becomes one of the easiest commodities to manipulate.
By 1896 the issuance of more silver money had become the main issue during the presidential campaign. Williams Jennings Bryan a senator from Nebraska ran for presidency on the Free Silver Issue. At the Democratic Convention in Chicago Bryan made an emotional speech, which won him the nomination. The speech was entitled, Crown of Thorns and Cross of Gold. Bryan was only thirty-six years old at the time of his speech, and is widely regarded as one of the most important orations ever made at a political convention. At the end of the speech Bryan said, “We will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925).
The bankers lavishly supported the republican candidate William McKinley who favored the gold standard. The resulting contest was one of the most fiercely contested presidential races in American political history. Bryan made over six hundred speeches in twenty-seven states. The McKinley campaign had manufacturers, and industrialist inform their employees that if Bryan were elected, all factories and plants would have to close, and there would be no work. The banker’s ploy worked, and McKinley beat Bryan by a small margin. Bryant ran for president again in 1900, and again in 1908, falling short each time. During the 1912 Democratic Convention, Bryan was a powerful figure who would help Woodrow Wilson win the nomination. When Wilson became president, he appointed Bryan as secretary of state, but Bryan soon became disenchanted with the Wilson administration. Bryan served only two years under Wilson before resigning in 1915, over the highly suspicious sinking of the Lusitania, which was the event to drive America into World War One. Although William Jennings Bryan never gained the presidency, his efforts delayed the money changers for seventeen years from obtaining their next goal, a new privately owned central bank for America.
XIX. Orchestrated Crashes, Bank Runs, Panics and Systemic Crisis
A bank run occurs when a fractional-reserve banking system suddenly has large number of customers attempting to withdraw cash from deposit accounts because they believe the financial institution is about to go insolvent. A banking panic is a financial crisis that occurs when many banks suffer runs at the same time, as people try to convert their threatened deposits into cash. A systemic banking crisis is one where nearly all of the banking capital in a country has been wiped out. the resulting chain of bankruptcies can cause a long economic recession as domestic businesses, and consumers are starved of capital.
In the musical Mary Poppins, Mr. Dawes, the elderly banker, optimistically attempts to persuade young Michael to put his money in the bank on the grounds that, “If you invest your tuppence wisely in the bank, safe and sound. Soon that tuppence will compound.” Not only would the boy receive a slice of the pie in, “railways through Africa, dams across the Nile, majestic self- amortizing canals and plantations of ripening tea”, promises Dawes, but he would also “achieve that sense of stature, as your influence expands to the high financial strata, that established credit now commands”. The boy, reluctant to entrust his pocket money to the banker protests, prompting other customers to take fright and frantically begin withdrawing their savings. Dawes, Tomes, Mousely, Grubbs Fidelity Fiduciary Bank has to temporarily suspend trading. Michael’s father, “Mr. Banks”, is fired due to his son triggering the first run on the bank since 1773.
The victims of the crash of 1907 are by far not the first casualties of the international bankers. The Roman Empire debased its coinage in 1622, causing wide spread suffering. Holland’s 1637 tulip bubble. The Semper Augustus bulb once sold for 6,000 Dutch florins at a time when a tonne of butter cost 100. Britain’s South Sea Bubble of 1720 occurred over exaggerated claims of future returns on money speculation. Sir Isaac Newton was able to “calculate the movement of the stars, but not the madness of men”, after losing 20,000 British pounds on a failed venture. The 18thcentury saw eleven financial crashes and the 19thcentury another eighteen. American banking panics caused crashes in 1819, 1837, 1847, 1857, 1873, 1884, 1890 and 1896. Australia had numerous crashes throughout the nineteenth century, and beyond.
There were thirty-three crashes that occurred in the 20thcentury, chief among them was the Wall Street Crash of 1929, and Japan’s 1990s crash due to banks in that country maintaining reserves as low as 1-2%.
In nearly all of these crisis, the bankers received legislative protection, and financial infusion that came from the taxpayers who had lost all their savings. The bankers continued to live lavish lifestyles, brought home unearned bonuses, and purchased the spoils for pennies on the dollars.
1901 brought the first panic on Wall Street. By October of 1903, the “Rich Man’s Panic” was over, when J. P. Morgan’s returned from his annual European art-collecting expedition, and helped restore confidence in the failing markets. This panic was a brief interlude in the bull market, but it was of great significance as the upper class, and insiders suffered the most, not the small investors. Early in the year the small investors went on a “buyer strike”, deciding that prices were too high. They sold in the early spring.
In 1903, investment bankers consolidated their positions, and destroyed competition. The panic demonstrated that small investor could not be relied upon, so the bankers turned to new sources of funds, finding them in banks, trust companies, and insurance companies, which were growing rapidly during the early twentieth century.
The panic of 1907 was the first stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange. This was due to E. H. Harriman, Jacob Schiff, J. P. Morgan, and James J. Hill struggle for the financial control of the Northern Pacific Railway. The stock cornering was orchestrated by James Stillman, and William Rockefeller’s First National City Bank, which was financed by Standard Oil money. After reaching a compromise, the moguls formed the Northern Securities Company. The result of the panic was thousands of small investors being ruined.
The panic of 1907 was a huge crisis for America, as the stock market lost half its value, the economy fell into recession, banks and trust companies suffered catastrophic runs, and the National Bank of North America collapsed. This orchestrated “crisis” led to the decision by a few New York banks to retract loans, which soon spread nationwide, eventually leading to the creation of the Federal Reserve System, America’s central bank, in 1913. A key player in the crisis was F. Augustus Heinze, and his Knickerbocker Trust Company, whose dodgy dealings in the financial, and commodities markets helped precipitate the stock market crash.
The worse financial disaster in the history of finance began when a frantic selling of more than 12M in shares occurred on what has become known as Black Thursday, October 24th1929. The world’s foremost capital market crashed, with investors selling a total of 16,410,030 shares, a number not exceeded until thirty years later. Some 14B was wiped off the value of the New York Stock Exchange in the first day alone. By 1933, some 11,000 of America’s 25,000 banks had gone bust. The Morgan’s, Rockefellers and Lehman’s, survived as millions of investors were ruined. Eleven people jumped from upper-floor windows of Wall Street as the scale of their losses became apparent. This was a crash so profound, that it marked the end of an era, and the beginning of another. The Roaring Twenties came to a close, as the Black Thirties began. Over the next few years, America’s jobless climbed to thirteen million, as millions lost their homes. Those homes were snapped up by the bankers who caused the crash. Stock prices remained 75% below their 1929 peak as of April 1942. It took the market a quarter of a century to recover.
The Wall Street crash, followed a decade-long speculative boom during which millions of investors piled into the stock market, borrowing to buy more and more. Rising share prices prompted people to invest, as banks lent more and more. This created what is known as a classic economic bubble. By the time the crash came, brokers were lending as much as 60% of the face value of the shares. The American president of that time had declared it would be inappropriate to intervene.
Banking collapses don’t come much bigger than that of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, closed down by the Bank of England in July 1991 after regulators found the bank had been engaging in worthless activities, such as fraud, tax evasion, money laundering, arms trafficking, smuggling, unlawful property dealing, bribery, and the support of terrorism. Around a million investors in more than 70 countries, including Crown jeweler’s Garrard’s, got burned as BCCI, which was founded in Pakistan in 1972, and had once claimed assets of 25B, was shown to have lost 13B. Money from Abu Dhabi, the Bank of America, and the CIA went into setting up the bank, which expanded at what can only be called suspicious speed throughout the 1970s, growing from 19 branches and 200M in assets. By 1980, the bank had grown to 150 branches to the claimed 4B in assets. Journalist Dan Atkinson wrote that the bank was spending its customers’ deposits, rather than investing them, and was insolvent as early as 1977.
Baring’s was an old, and established banking entity. It was the oldest merchant bank in the London, until it went belly-up in 1995, following losses of some £827M, caused by one single trader, Nick Leeson. Baring’s was founded in 1762, and despite Britain being at war with France, the bank had helped to finance the Louisiana Purchase, by which the United States bought nearly a quarter of its current territory from the French in 1803. The Baring Bank also had to be rescued by the Bank of England in 1890, caused by bad investments in Argentine and Uruguay. In the end, the bank’s illustrious history, nor its connections with the British royal family could save it.
Savings and loans institutions in the United States were small local banks that made home loans, and took in deposits from the average working person. These banks dated back to the 1800s, and were comparable in many ways to Britain’s building societies. In the 1970s and 80s, however, financial deregulation encouraged those savings and loan banks to venture into other financial territories that offered complex products. The S&Ls lend large sums to investors in direct competition with the major U.S. commercial banks, but without the expertise, and regulatory framework. Predictably, large numbers of S&Ls found themselves in deep trouble, and by 1985, a run initiated on S&L institutions in Ohio, and Maryland. Approximately 1,000 of America’s 4,000 S&L’s eventually went belly-up in the largest, and costliest venture in public misfeasance, malfeasance and larceny of all time. The federal government insured many of the deposits in the S&Ls, and faced massive liabilities when they collapsed. The total cost of the bailout exceeded 150B.
On April 19th2002, in a desperate attempt to prevent the collapse of the economy, the Argentine government was forced to order the indefinite closure of all of the country’s banks. Falling GDP, high government spending, rampant corruption, endemic tax evasion, rising unemployment, and soaring public debt had finally come to a head. Investors lost confidence in the country’s economy, and begun besieging their banks to withdraw pesos, and convert them to the U.S. dollar, and in investments abroad. Exacerbating the circumstances was when all banking, and foreign exchange transactions were halted. These restrictions were worse than those introduced a few months earlier, which prevented depositors from withdrawing more than the equivalent of 500 USD a month. Many Argentinians obtained a court ruling that overturned that law, resulting in banks bleeding an additional 100M a day. By the time a full banking freeze was ordered, the Argentine banks had been bled over 10% of its cash.
XX. J.P. Morgan and the Privately Held Central Bank
During the early 1900’s bankers like J.P. Morgan led the charge to reinstate a privately held central bank. One last orchestrated financial panic would focus the American’s attention on the “need” for a newly chartered central bank. The fraudulent rationale was that only a central bank could prevent bank failures.
Morgan at this time was the most powerful banker in the U.S. He was also a suspected agent for the Rothschild cartel. Morgan had helped finance John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil empire. Morgan also financed the monopolies of Edward Harriman in railroads, Andrew Carnegie in steel, and others in various industries. Morgan’s father was Julius Morgan. He had been America’s financial agent to the British. After his father’s death J.P. Morgan took on a British partner Edward C. Grenfell, a long time director of the Bank of England. Ironically, on his death, J.P. Morgan’s estate contained only a few million dollars. The bulk of securities that everyone thought Morgan had owned, were in fact, owned by foreign interests.
In 1902, is is often repeated that President Theodore Roosevelt went after Morgan, and their conspirators to break up their industrial monopolies under, The Sherman Anti-Trust Act. In reality, Roosevelt did little to interfere with the growing monopoly of the industrialist bankers, and their surrogates. One such example is where Roosevelt supposedly broke up the Standard Oil monopoly. Standard Oil wasn’t broken up at all, it was merely divided into seven corporations, with all of those corporations still controlled by the Rockefellers. The public was made aware of this through political cartoonists like, Thomas Nast, who referred to bankers as the money trusts.
In 1891, a British labor leader made the following statement on the subject of the Rothschild banking cartel, “This blood-sucking crew has been the cause of untold mischief and misery in Europe during the present century, and has piled up its prodigious wealth chiefly through fomenting wars between states, which ought never to have quarreled. Whenever there is trouble in Europe, wherever rumors of war circulate, and men’s minds are distraught with fear of change and calamity, you may be sure that a hook-nosed Rothschild is at his games somewhere near the region of the disturbance.” Comments like this worry the Rothschild cartel, and towards the end of the 1800’s they purchased Reuters News Agency so they could exercise control over what the media printed about them, and the markets they controlled.
By 1907, the year after Teddy Roosevelt reelection, Morgan tried to push for a central bank again. Using their combined financial muscle, Morgan and his friends were able to crash the stock market. At that time, thousands of small banks were vastly over extended, some had reserves less than one percent, due to the principle of fractional reserves, which had not been property regulated by government officials charged with oversight.
Within days, bank runs were common across the nation. Morgan stepped into the public arena, and promised to prop up the faltering American economy, by supporting failing banks with money, manufactured out of nothing. It was an outrageous proposal, far worse than even fractional reserve banking, but congress permitted him to do so. Morgan printed 200 million dollars in completely worthless, private money, and bought things with it, paid for services with it, and sent some of it to his branch banks to lend out at interest. His plan worked, and soon the public regained their confidence, and quit hording their currency. As a result, as in the crash of 2007, banking power was further consolidated into the hands of a few large banks. By 1908, the panic was over, and Morgan was hailed as a hero by the president of Princeton University, a man by the name of Woodrow Wilson. “All this trouble could be averted if we appointed a committee of six or seven public-spirited men like J.P. Morgan to handle the affairs of our country.” Economic textbooks would later claim that the creation of the Federal Reserve system was a direct result of the panic of 1907.“With the alarming epidemic of bank failures the country was fed up once and for all with the anarchy of unstable private banking.” Minnesota congressman, Charles A. Lindbergh Sr. would explain that the panic of 1907 was really nothing more than a scam perpetrated by J.P. Morgan, and other banking interests.“Those not favorable to the money trust could be squeezed out of business, and the people frightened into demanding changes n the banking and currency laws which the Money Trust would frame.”
Since the passing of the National Bank Act of 1863, the money changers had been able to create a series of booms and busts. The purpose was not only to fleece the American public of their property, but to later claim the banking system was so unstable that it had to be consolidated into a central bank once again.
XXI. Jekyll Island: The Aldrich Bill
Jekyll Island, where the crime of the century was hatched, the Federal Reserve Act.
After the crash of 1907, Theodore Roosevelt responded by signing into law a bill called, The National Monetary Commission. The commission was to study the banking problem, and make a report to congress. The committee was packed with Morgan’s friends, and cronies. The chairman was senator Nelson Aldrich from Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the location of homes of America’s wealthiest families. Aldrich’s daughter had married John D. Rockefeller Jr. Together they had five sons. John, Nelson would become vice president of the empire in 1964. Other sons included Lawrence, Winthrop and David, who would become the head of the council of foreign relations, and former chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank.
As soon as the National Monetary Commission was set up, senator Aldrich immediately embarked on a two-year tour or Europe, where he consulted in length with the private central bankers in England, France and Germany. The total cost of his trip was 300,000 USD, an astronomical amount of money in those days. The entire trip was paid for by taxpayers. Shortly after his return on November 22nd, 1910 some of the wealthiest, and most influential men boarded his private railroad car, and in the strictest of secrecies, traveled to Jekyll Island, off of the coast of Georgia. With the group came Paul Warburg, who had been given a 500,000 annual salary to lobby for the passage of a privately owned central bank in America by the investment firm, Kuhn, Lobe and Co. Warburg’s partner in this firm was a man named Jacob Schiff, the grandson of the man who shared the green shield house with the Rothschild family in Frankfurt, Germany. At that time, Schiff was in the process of spending 20 million dollars to finance the overthrow of the Czar of Russia. These three European banking families, the Rothschild’s, Warburg’s and Schiff’s, were interconnected in marriage, down through the years, just as their American banking counterparts, the Morgan’s, Rockefeller’s, and Aldrich’s were.
Secrecy was so tight regarding what was transpiring during this event that all seven primary participants were cautioned to use only first names. Eve their servants were prevented from learning their identities. Years later one participant, Frank Vanderlip, the president of National City Bank of New York, and a representative of the Rockefeller family confirmed the Jekyll Island trip in a February 9thaddition of the Saturday Evening Post. “I was as secretive indeed, as furtive as any conspirator. Discovery, we knew, simply must not happen, or else all our time and effort would be wasted. If it were to be exposed that our particular group had got together and written a bank bill, that bill would have no chance whatever of passage by Congress.”
The participants had gone to Jekyll Island to solve one problem, and that problem was, how to bring back a privately owned central bank. But there were other problems that needed to be addressed. First, the market share of the big national banks were shrinking fast. In the first ten years of that century, the number of national banks had doubled to over twenty thousand. By 1913, only 29% of all banks were national banks, and they held only 57% of all deposits. Senator Aldrich would later admit in a magazine article, “Before the passage of this Act, the New York Bankers could only dominate the reserves of New York. Now, we are able to dominate the bank reserves of the entire country.” In the mind of the plotting conspirators, something had to be done to bring these new banks under their control. As John D. Rockefeller stated, “Competition is sin.” Secondly, corporations were so strong that were beginning to finance their expansions out of profits, instead of taking out huge loans from large banks. In the first ten years of the new century, 70% of corporate spending came from profits. In other words, American industry was becoming independent of the money changers, and that trend had to be stopped. All the participants new that all these problems could be resolved, but perhaps their biggest problem would be a public relation problem, and that would be the name of the new bank.
Aldrich believed the word bank should not appear in the bills name. Warburg wanted to call the “legislation”, the National Reserve Bill. The idea was to give the impression that the purpose of this new bill was to conceal the character of a new privately held central bank. Due to Aldrich’s large ego, he insisted the bill be called the Aldrich Bill. After nine days of the banker’s conspiring to take over America’s money, the group dispersed. The one thing the group managed to agree upon was that the new bank would be similar to the old privately held central Bank of the United States, that it would be given a monopoly over the U.S. currency, and the power to create money out of nothing.
How does the Federal Reserve create money out of nothing? It is a four step process, but bonds must first be discussed. Bonds are a promise to pay for government I.O.U.’s. People buy bonds to get a secure rate of interest, and at the end of the term of the bond the government repays the bond, plus interest, and the bond is then terminated. There are approximately 16 trillion dollars in U.S. loans, or bond debts that exists today.
XXII. Four Steps of Creating Money
The Federal Open Market Committee approves the purchase of U.S. Bonds on the open market.
The bonds are purchased by the Fed from whoever is offering them for sale on the open market.
The Federal Reserve pays for the bond with electronic credits to the seller’s bank, these electronic credits are backed by, and created out of nothing. The Federal Reserve creates them out of nothing.
The bank uses the deposits as reserves and are permitted to loan out over ten times the amount to new borrowers with interest.
The method by which the Federal Reserve creates money out of nothing is magical.
In this manner The Federal Reserve purchase of a million dollar in bonds, gets turned into ten million dollars in bank accounts. The Feds in affect create 10% of this phony money that is not backed by anything, and the banks then create the other 90%, which is not backed by anything. To reduce the amount of money in the economy, the process is simply reversed. The Feds sell bonds to the public, and the money flows out of the purchaser’s bank, and loans must be reduced by ten times the amount of the sale, so a Fed sale of a million-dollar bond, results in ten million dollars of less money in the economy.
The next questions that must be asked are, how does all of this benefit the bankers whose representatives conspired on Jekyll Island? It misdirected banking reform from proper solutions. It prevented a proper debt free currency like the greenbacks from making a comeback. The bond based system of government finance forced on Lincoln after he created greenbacks was now cast in stone. It delegated to the bankers the right to create 90% of the nation’s money supply, based on merely fractional reserves, which the bankers then loan out at interest. It centralized overall control of the U.S. nations money supply in the hands of a few men. It established a central bank with a high degree of independence from effective political control. Soon after its creation, the Feds contraction of money in the early 1930’s would cause the Great Depression, and this independence has been enhanced ever since that period, through additional loss.
In order for the Federal Reserve to fool the public into believing the Fed was a governmental agency, and that the government would retain control over the bank, the planners called for the new central bank to be overseen by a board of governors, appointed by the president of the U.S., and approved by the senate. In reality, all the bankers had to do was to ensure that their men got appointed to the board. An easy enough task, since bankers have money, and money buys influence over politicians.
When the participators of the secretly held meeting at Jekyll Island returned home, the publicity blitz was on. The largest New York bankers put together an educational fund of five million dollars to finance professors at respected universities to support the new bill. Woodrow Wilson was one of the first to jump on the band wagon. Regardless, the Aldrich Bill was recognized for what it was, and it was quickly recognized as the banker’s bill. A bill that would become known as the money trust. As congress Lindberg stated during the bills debate, “The Aldrich Plan is the Wall Street plan. It means another panic, if necessary, to intimidate the people. Aldrich, paid by the government to represent the people, proposes a plan for the trusts instead.”
The bankers saw that they didn’t have enough congressional votes to have the Aldrich Bill passed, therefore the bill was never brought to a vote. The bankers were not defeated however, they quietly decided to move toward financing a new effort, which was to finance Woodrow Wilson as the democratic nominee. Wall Street financier, Bernard Baruch, was put in charge of Wilson’s education. Historian, James Perloff wrote, “Baruch brought Wilson to the Democratic Party Headquarters in New York in 1912, leading him like one would lead a poodle on a string. Wilson received an indoctrination course from the leaders convened there.”
The stage was set, and the money changers were poised to install their privately owned central bank. The damage to the bankers that President Jackson had done seventy-six years earlier, had only been partly repaired with the passing of the National Banking Act, during the Civil War. Since then, the battle for the takeover of all of America’s finances raged onward for decades. The Jacksonians became known as greenbackers, who were the hardcore backers of William Jennings Bryan. With Bryan leading the charge, the opponents of the money changers, ignorant of Baruch’s tutelage, now threw themselves behind the democratic representative Woodrow Wilson. The Americans, and Bryan would be betrayed yet again.
XXII. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Revisited
An artist rendition of Woodrow Wilson signing The Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
During the democratic campaign supporters of Woodrow Wilson pretended to oppose the Aldrich Bill. Rep. Louis McFadden, a democrat, and chairman of the House of Banking and Currency Committee explained twenty years later, “The Aldrich Bill was condemned in the platform, when Woodrow Wilson was nominated, the men who ruled the democratic party promised the people that if they were returned to power there would be no central bank established while they held the reins of government. Thirteen months later that promise was broken, and the Wilson administration, under the tutelage of those sinister Wall Street figures who stood behind Colonel House, established here in our free country, the worm-eaten institution of the king’s bank to control us from the top downward, and to shackle us from the cradle to the grave.”
Once Wilson was elected Morgan, Warburg, Baruch and other bankers hatched their plan they called the Federal Reserve System. The Democratic leadership hailed the new bill as the Glass-Owen Bill, as something radically different from the Aldrich Bill, but in fact the bill was virtually identical in every important detail. So vehement were the democrats in denial of the similarities of the bill, that Warburg, the writer of both bills, he had to step in and reassure the bribed members of congress that the two bills were, in fact, identical. “Brushing aside the external differences affecting the shells, we find the kernels of the two systems very closely resembling and related to one another.” Warburg’s admission was for private consumption only. Publicly the money trust used Aldrich, and Frank Vanderlip, the president of Rockefeller’s National City Bank of New York, and one of the Jekyll island seven secret conspirators, to oppose the Federal Reserve System. Years later, a Saturday Evening Post article stated that Vanderlip admitted that the two bills were identical. “Although the Aldrich Federal Reserve Plan was defeated when it bore the name Aldrich, nevertheless its essential points were all contained in the plan that finally was adopted.”
As Congress neared a vote, they called an Ohio attorney named, Alfred Crozier to testify. Crosier noted the similarities between the Aldrich Bill, and the Glass-Owen Bill. “The bill grants just what Wall Street and the big banks for twenty-five years have been striving for, private instead of public control of currency. It (the Glass-Owen Bill) does this as completely as the Aldrich Bill. Both measures rob the government, and the people of all effective control over the public’s money, and vest in the banks exclusively the dangerous power to make money among the people scarce or plenty.” During the debate on the bill senators complained that big banks were using their financial muscle to influence the outcome. “There are bankers in this country that are enemies of the public welfare,” said one senator. Despite the charges of fraud and corruption, the bill was snuck through the senate on December 23rd, 1913 after most senators had left town during the holidays, after being assured by the leadership that nothing would be done about the bill until congress was to return after the Christmas recess. On the day the bill was passed, congressman Lindberg warned his countrymen that, “This Act establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the president signs this bill, the invisible government by the monetary power will be legalized. The people may not know it immediately, but the day or reckoning is only a few years removed. The worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking bill.”
Only weeks earlier congress also had passed a bill legalizing income tax. The income tax was important to the bankers because they finally had in place a system that would run a perpetual, and unlimited federal debt. How was the interest, and principal on that debt be repaid? A central bank’s scheme is to print money out of nothing. At that time the federal government was small. The federal government existed on tariffs, and excise taxes nearly exclusively. Here, just as with the Bank of England, the income payments had to be guaranteed by direct taxation of the people. The money changers knew that if they had to rely solely on contributions from the state, eventually the individual state legislatures would revolt, and refuse to pay the interest on their own money, and bring political pressure to keep the debt small. It must be noted that, in 1875, the Supreme Court found a similar income tax law to be unconstitutional. In 1909, the Supreme Court also held that a corporate income tax was unconstitutional. Thereafter, senator Aldrich supported a constitutional amendment that would permit an income tax. The proposed XVI Amendment to the constitution was then sent to legislatures for approval. Some critics of the amendment claim it was never ratified by the necessary 3/4 of the states. In other words, the XVI Amendment may not be a legal attachment to the U.S. Constitution. However, by 1913, senator Aldrich had pushed the amendment through congress. Without the power to tax the people directly, and bypass the states, the Federal Reserve Bill would be far less useful to those who wanted to drive Americans deeper into debt, and servitude of the big bankers, and their interests.
One year after the passage of the Federal Reserve Bill, congressman Lindbergh explained how that bill created what has come to known as the business cycle, and how bankers use it to manipulate business, and property ownership, for the benefit of the bankers only. “To cause high prices, all the Federal Reserve Board will do will be to lower the rediscount rate, producing an expansion of credit and a rising stock market, then when businessmen are adjusted to these conditions, it can check prosperity in mid-career by arbitrarily raising the rate of interest. It can cause the pendulum of a rising and falling market to swing gently back and forth by slight changes in the discount rate, or cause violent fluctuations by a greater rate variation, and in either case it will possess inside information as to financial conditions and advance knowledge of the coming change, either up or down. This is the strangest, most dangerous advantage ever placed in the hands of a special privilege class by any Government that ever existed. The system is private, conducted for the sole purpose of obtaining the greatest possible profits from the use of other people’s money. They know in advance when to create panics to their advantage. They also know when to stop panic. Inflation and deflation work equally well for them when they control finance. Already the federal banks have cornered the gold and gold certificates.” Lindberg was correct on all points, however, he hadn’t realized that most European nations had already fallen prey to bankers centuries earlier. Lindbergh was not the only outspoken critic of the Fed. Louis McFadden the chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee from 1920-1931 remarked, “The Federal Reserve Act brought about a super-state controlled by international bankers and international industrialists acting together to enslave the world for their own pleasure.” McFadden was well aware of the international banker’s role in the formation, manipulation, and control of America’s wealth, and the newly formed private central bank called, The Federal Reserve. Another chairman of the House Banking, and Currency Committee in the 1960’s Wright Patman from Texas stated, “In the United States today we have in effect two governments. We have the duly constituted government. Then we have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the Federal Reserve System, operating the money powers, which are reserved to congress by the constitution.”
Thomas Edison joined the fray in criticizing the formation of the Federal Reserve. “If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good, makes the bill good also. The difference between the bond, and the bill is the bond lets money brokers collect twice the amount of the bond, and an additional 20%, where as the currency pays nobody, but those who contribute directly in some useful way. It is absurd to say our country can issue 30 million in bonds, and not 30 million in currency. Both are promises to pay, but one promise fattens the usurers, and the other helps the people.”
Three years after the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, the banker’s puppet president Woodrow Wilson began to have second thoughts about his role in the scheme. “We have become to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled governments in the civilized world, no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government by, a vote of majority, but a government by the opinion, and duress of a small group of dominant men. Some of the biggest men in the United States, in the field of commerce and manufacture, are afraid of something. They know that there is a power somewhere so organized, so subtle, so watchful, so interlocked, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it.” Before his death in 1924, president Wilson realized the full extent of the damage he had done to the nation when he confessed, “I have unwittingly ruined my government.”
Finally, the bankers that profited through manipulating the amount of money in circulation, succeeded in having the return of a privately owned central bank in the U.S. The major newspapers, which those bankers owned, hailed the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, as a money system that could scientifically prevent recessions. Unfortunately, the depressions, and recessions the world has witnessed countless times, could now be scientifically created by those who controlled the manufacturing of money.
XXIII. World War I: Profits of War
Bankers fund both sides of a war, reaping huge profits.
When World War One was declared there were street celebrations in most of Europe’s capital cities. No one envisaged the appalling casualties that occurred over the next four years of fighting. In August of 1914, Ypres was a well preserved medieval city. By 1918, it lay in ruins and the surrounding land had witnessed the death of tens of thousands. Russia lost 9.5M, France 6.1M, Great Britain 3.1M, Italy 2.1M, U.S.A. 350k. Total allied dead was approximately 22M. Germany lost 7.1M, Austria 7M, Turkey Bulgaria a combined total of 13.M with total losses of 15M. WWI ended with an estimated 37M deaths.
The total financial debt to the bankers during and after WWI for the allied powers was nearly 126B. The central powers debt came to approximately 61B.
Nobody would claim that a war as large as World War I would have a single cause. Wars are complex, having many causative factors. However, it would be equally as foolish to ignore as a primary cause of the war, those that would profit the most from the war. The role of the money changers is not a conspiracy theory. Bankers had the clearest motive to start the world war, a short-term profit motivating factor, and a long-range goal of advancing a totalitarian government, with the money changers maintaining financial clout to control whatever politician might emerge as the leader.
To the central bankers, the political issues don’t matter as much as the profit potential that arise from it, and nothing creates debt as much as a nation declaring war against another. Prior to WWI, power had been centralized on a global scale. Now it was time to wage war. A large, costly and destructive war. This was to be the first world war.
England was the perfect debt generating model of that time. During a one-hundred and nineteen years between the founding of the Bank of England, and Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, England had been at war for 56 years, and much of the remaining time was spent on preparing for war, and paying on the war debt.
During World War I, the German Rothschild cartel loaned money to Germany. The British Rothschild cartel loaned money to the British, and the French Rothschild cartel loaned money to France. In the U.S., J.P. Morgan was the sales agent for the war material to both the British, and the French. In fact, six months into the war, Morgan became the largest consumer on earth, spending 10 million dollars a day. His offices located at 23 Wall Street were mobbed by brokers, and salesmen trying to cut a deal. All Wall Street bankers made a fortune on the coming war. President Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the wars industry board. According to historian James Perloff, both Baruch and the Rockefellers profited 200 million dollars from the war. Profits were not the only motive, there was also revenge against those that opposed centralizing banks wherever demanded. The money changers never forgave the Russian Czar for his support of Lincoln during the Civil War. Russia was also the last major European nation to refuse to kowtow to the privately owned central banking scheme.
Three years after WWI started, the banks money toppled the Russian Czar, and imposed communism, creating the Soviet Union. Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Lobe and Company bragged from his deathbed that he had spent 20 million dollars toward the defeat of the Czar. Money was funneled from England to support the revolution. Why would the world’s richest financial institutions back communism, the system that was openly vowing to destroy capitalism, a system that had made them all wealthy? Author Gary Allen wrote, “If one understands that socialism is not a share-the-wealth program, but is in reality a method to consolidate and control the wealth, then the seeming paradox of super-rich men promoting socialism becomes no paradox at all. Instead, it becomes logical, even the perfect tool of power-seeking megalomaniacs. Communism, or more accurately, socialism, is not a movement of the downtrodden masses, but of the economic elite.”
W. Cleon Skousen, “Power from any source tends to create an appetite for additional power. It was almost inevitable that the super-rich would one day aspire to control not only their own wealth, but the wealth of the whole world. To achieve this, they were perfectly willing to feed the ambitions of the power-hungry political conspirators who were committed to the overthrow of all existing governments and the establishments of a central world-wide dictatorship.”
To keep powerful dictators in check, the bankers contracted the money supply, or financed their oppositions, if they got out of control. Lennon understood that, although he was the absolute dictator, of the Soviet Union, he was not the one pulling the financial strings. Vladimir Lenin stated, “The state does not function as we desired. The car does not obey. A man is at the wheel, and seems to lead it, but the car does not drive in the desired direction. It moves as another force wishes.” Who was behind it? Louis T. McFadden explained it this way, “The course of Russian history has, indeed, been greatly affected by the operations of international bankers. The Soviet government has been given United States Treasury funds by the Federal Reserve Board acting through Chase Bank. England has drawn money from us through the Federal Reserve banks, and has re-lent it at high rates of interest to the Soviet government. The Dnieperstory Dam was built with funds unlawfully taken from the United States Treasury by the corrupt, and dishonest Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve banks.” In other words, the Feds and the heads of the Bank of England at the behest of the international bankers that controlled them created a monster. One that would fuel seven decades of communist revolution, warfare and death.
In 1992, the New York Times reported that Russian president Boris Yeltzin was upset that most of the incoming foreign aid was being siphoned, “Straight back into the coffers of western banks in debt service.”
XXIV. The Greatest of the Depressions
The Great Depression: America, the world’s highest standard of living.
According to former U.S. Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke, the Great Depression was caused by the Federal Reserve System, and much of the economic damage was caused directly by bank runs.
Shortly after World War I, the political agenda of the bankers was apparent. Now that the bankers controlled the national economies, the next step was the ultimate form of consolidation, world government. The new world government proposal was given top priority at the Paris Peace Conference at the end of WWI. It was organized as the League of Nations, but much to the surprise of Paul Warburg, and Bernard Baruch, who attended the conference with President Wilson, the world was not ready to dissolve national boundaries. To the humiliation of President Wilson, the U.S. Congress would not ratify the league, despite the fact that it had been ratified by many other nations. Without the money flowing from the U.S. Treasury, the league died.
The American people grew tired of the international policies of Wilson, and the presidential election of the 1920’s, Warren Harding won a landslide victory with over 60% of the nation’s vote. Harding was a strident foe of both the Bolshevism, and the League of Nations. Harding’s election led to an unprecedented era of prosperity. During the election of 1920, Harding, and Calvin Coolidge ran against James Cox, the governor of Ohio, and the little known Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had previously risen to no higher post than President Wilson’s assistant secretary of the Navy. After his inauguration, Harding moved quickly to kill the League of Nations, and to reduce taxes, while raising tariffs to record heights. This was a revenue policy that most of the founding fathers would have approved.
The following eight years, under the presidency of Coolidge, and Harding, the ballooning federal debt that had built up during WWI was cut by 38%, to 16 billion dollars. This was to be the greatest drop in national debt in U.S. history.
Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the U.S.
During his second year in office, Harding took ill during a rail trip west, and suddenly died. Although, no autopsy had ever been performed, the cause was said to be either pneumonia, or food poisoning. When Coolidge took over he continued Harding’s domestic policy, of high tariffs on imports, while cutting income taxes. As a result, the economy grew at such a rate, that net economy continued to increase. To the bankers, this had to be stopped. It was time for the bankers to crash the economy. Within minutes of Harding’s death on August 2, 1923, rumors began to circulate. No one seemed sure who was with him in the San Francisco hotel room where he breathed his last breath. The four physicians who had been caring for Harding could not agree on the cause of death. It had something to do with his heart. On the other hand, perhaps it was a stroke. Alternatively, it could have been both, exacerbated by the ptomaine poisoning that he may, or may not have experienced a few days earlier in Vancouver. Despite the confusion over the time of death, surely an autopsy would resolve the uncertainty about what killed the president.
The Federal Reserve flooded the country with money, and increased the supply by 62% during those years. This period became known as the, Roaring 20’s. Before his death in 1919, former president Theodore Roosevelt warned the American people what was going on, as reported in the March 27th, 1922 edition of the New York Times. Roosevelt said, “These international bankers and Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests control the majority of newspapers, and the columns of these papers to club into submission or drive out of public office officials who refuse to do the bidding of the powerful corrupt cliques, which compose the invisible government.” The day before this article was printed, the mayor of New York quoted Roosevelt, and blasted those as he saw taking control of America, its machinery and its press. John Hylan, Mayor of New York. New York Times, March 26th, 1922 wrote, “The warning of Theodore Roosevelt has much timeliness today, for the real menace of our republic is the invisible government which like a giant octopus sprawls its slimy length over city, state, and nation. It seized in its long and powerful tentacles our executive officers, our legislative bodies, our schools, our courts, our newspapers, and every agency created for the public protection. To depart from mere generalizations, let me say that at the head of this octopus are the Rockefeller-Standard Oil interest, and a small group of powerful banking houses generally referred to as the international bankers. The little coterie of powerful international bankers virtually run the United States government for their own selfish purposes. They practically control both parties, write political platforms, make catspaws of party leaders, use the leading men of private organizations, and resort to every device to place in nomination for high public office only such candidates as will be amenable to the dictates of corrupt big business. These international bankers and Rockefeller-Standard Oil interests control the majority of the newspapers and magazines in this country.”
Nobody listened to these staunch warnings, and the demands on congress to reverse its 1913 passage of the Federal Reserve Act fell on deaf ears. After all, it was the 1920’s, and the bankers had flooded the market with money, and the economy showed a steady increase in the markets. In times of prosperity, nobody wants to worry about economic issues. However, there was a dark side to all of this prosperity. Businesses had expanded, and were strapped with credit. Speculating of the booming stock market was rampant.
In April of 1929, Paul Warburg the father of the Federal Reserve sent out a secret advisory, warning his friends that an economic collapse was imminent, and a nationwide depression was certain. In August of that year, the Fed began tightening the money supply. It’s not a coincidence that the biographies of all the Wall Street giants of that era, J.D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, Bernard Baruch, Joseph Kennedy, all marveled that they got out of the stock market just prior to its crash, and placed all their assets in gold, or other investments.
On October 29t1929, the largest New York bankers called in their 24-hour broker call loans. This meant that both stockbrokers, and customers had to dump their stocks on the market to cover their loans, no matter what price they had to sell them at. The market tumbled. That day is known as Black Thursday. At the height of the selling frenzy, Bernard Baruch brought Winston Churchill in to the visitor’s gallery at the New York Stock Exchange to witness the panic, and to impress him with Baruch’s power over the events transpiring down over the floor.
Congressman Louis McFadden chairman over the House Banking and Currency Committee, from 1920 until 1931, knew who to blame, he accused the Fed and the international bankers of orchestrating the crash. “It was not accidental. It was a carefully contrived occurrence. The international bankers sought to bring about a condition of despair here so that they might emerge as rulers of us all.” McFadden openly accused the bankers of causing the crash in order to steal America’s gold. In February of 1931, right in the middle of the depression he stated,“I think it can hardly be disputed that the statesman, and financiers of Europe are ready to take almost any measure to reacquire rapidly the gold stock which Europe lost to America as the result of World War I.” Curtis B. Dall, a broker for the NYSE was on the floor the day of the crash, in his 1970 book, Roosevelt, My Exploited Father In Law, he explained that the crash was triggered by the planned sudden shortage of call money in the New York money market. “Actually, it was the calculated shearing of the public by the World-Money powers triggered by the planned sudden shortage of call money in the New York Money Market.”
An emaciated, and starving man photographed during America’s Great Depression.
Within a few weeks, 3 billion dollars of wealth seemed to simply vanish. Within a year 40 billion had been lost. Did that money really disappear, or did it merely consolidate into fewer hands? Joseph P. Kennedy’s worth grew from 4 million dollars in 1929 to over 100 million dollars by 1935. What did the Federal Reserve do? Instead of moving to help the economy, by quickly lowering interest rates, to stimulate the economy, the Fed continued to brutally contract the money supply further, which deepened the depression. Between 1929, and 1933 the Fed reduced the money supply by an additional 33%. Although most Americans had never heard the Fed was the cause of the depression. This remains well reported amongst the world’s top economists. Milton Friedman, the Nobel Prize winning economist, and professor at Stanford University noted during a radio interview in 1996. “The Federal Reserve definitely caused the Great depression by contracting the amount of currency in circulation by one-third from 1929 to 1933.”
The money lost during the depression had not just vanished, it had simply redistributed into the hands of the people who had gotten out of the market, just prior to the crash, and had purchased gold, which is always considered a safe place to put money before a depression. America’s money went overseas, as president Hoover had attempted to rescue banks, and prop up businesses. Millions of Americans starved to death as the depression deepened. Instead of investing in the U.S., bankers used depression era profits to rebuild the WWI destruction of Germany that the bankers had caused. Rep. Louis McFadden warned congress that they were the cause of Hitler’s rise to power. “After WWI, Germany fell into the hands of the international bankers. Those bankers now own her, lock, stock, and barrel. They have stolen her industries, they have mortgages on her soil, they control her productions, they control all her public utilities. Through the Federal Reserve Board over 30 billion of American money has been pumped into Germany. You have all heard of the spending that has taken place in Germany, modernistic dwellings, her great planetariums, her gymnasiums, her swimming pools, her fine public highways, her perfect factories. All this was done with our money. All this was given to Germany through the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve has pumped so many billions into Germany that they dare not name the total.”
The policies of the Third Reich, prior to WWII was the ousting of international bankers, the removal of their control over the media, and Germany printing their own money. Very quickly Germany’s money became the hottest commodity in the finance industry. It is hard to imagine that a mere few years earlier one couldn’t purchase a loaf of bread with a barrel full of the money that the bankers had created.
In his last year in office president Hoover put forth a desperate plan to bail out the failing banks, but he needed support from the Democratic congress, and he wasn’t about to get it. That same year Franklin D. Roosevelt was swept into office during the 1932 presidential election. Once Roosevelt was in office, sweeping emergency banking measures were announced. Then, and only then did the Fed begin to expand money into the economy, and the starving American people.
XXV. FDR and the Theft of America’s Gold
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the U.S.
The legacy of the Delano family began with their involvement in the opium trade, and the First Opium War, also known as the Opium War and the Anglo-Chinese War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals in China. China’s emperors discovered the devastating effect of opium on the nation’s population and attempted to ban the importation of opium into the Middle Kingdom in the early 19thCentury. Backed by their own governments, Western traders ignored Chinese concerns and demands, and continued to flood the country with opium. The drug kingpins enlisted their governments to back them up with military force, reaping huge profits in the process. Most of these traders were British, but a significant number were American, and the profits they made were the cornerstone of some of 19th Century America’s greatest fortunes.
John Jacobs Astor was America’s first multimillionaire, who had participated in the opium smuggling trade in 1816 when his American Fur Company bought 10 tons of Turkish opium, and smuggled it into Canton. Astor became the first American known to have entered the contraband Chinese opium trade.
John and Robert Forbes worked for Perkins & Co. in its China trade. While their job was to secure quality tea for export, they were more intimately involved in the importation of opium. The brothers’ activities in the opium trade led to the Forbes family’s accumulated wealth. The most notable family member today is the current Secretary of State John Forbes Kerry.
Samuel Wadsworth Russell started as an orphaned apprentice to a maritime trade merchant. He eventually founded Russell and Co., the most powerful American merchant house in China for most of the second half of the 19th Century. Russell landed in Canton in 1819, and quickly amassed a fortune in the opium trade. Russell’s cousin, and fellow opium trader, William Huntington Russell, was a co-founder, and funder of Yale University’s Skull and Bones Society.
Thomas Handasyd Perkins, a wealthy merchant, and Boston Brahmin par excellance, made his trading debut selling slaves in Haiti. He also peddled furs to China from the American Northwest before amassing a huge fortune smuggling Turkish opium into China. Although he got rich off the trade, he avoided mentioning it, and his official biography, written by his son-in-law, never mentions his involvement in opium.
Warren Delano, Jr., the grandfather of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was chief of operations for Russell & Co., a Boston trading firm which did big business in the China opium trade in Canton. Delano Jr. spent a decade as a dealer, selling opium on the Pearl River before returning to New York as a wealthy, and eligible bachelor. He admitted in letters home that opium had an “unhappy effect” on its users, but argued that its sale was “fair, honorable, and legitimate,” akin to importing wine, and spirits to America. Delano lost his fortune in the Great Panic of 1857, but returned to China, and rebuilt it by supplying the U.S. military with opium to treat Union soldiers in the Civil War. Today, the Delano’s don’t discuss their ancestor’s involvement in the opium trade. As FDR biographer Geoffrey C. Ward noted, “In a family fond of retelling, and embellishing even the mildest sort of ancestral adventures, no stories seem to have been handed down concerning Warren Delano’s genuinely adventurous career in the opium business.”
Franklin Delano Roosevelt has been called an American hero. In reality, FDR was a New York banker, who had conspired with the FED to outlaw, and confiscate all gold that remained privately held. The guise of this theft was to prop up the American economy. The result was a scheme to further impoverish the American people.
The Gold Confiscation Act of 1933, was a ruse to confiscate America’s wealth, and consolidate it into the hands of a few international bankers.
On, March 4th, 1933, Roosevelt’s inaugural address included the following statement, “Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men. The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization.” Two days later Roosevelt declared a bank holiday, closing all banks. Later that same year he outlawed private ownership of all gold bullion, and all gold coins. This new decree was, in effect a confiscation of private, and personal assets. Those that did not comply, risked as many as ten years in federal prison, and a 10,000 dollar fine, the equivalent of more than a 140,000 dollar fine today.
So unpopular was the confiscation order that no government official took credit for it. No congressman admitted to signing the bill into law. At the signing ceremony President Roosevelt stated that he was not the author of the bill, and even claimed that had not even read it. The secretary of the treasury said he had not read the bill either. Regardless, the secretary was quoted as saying, “It’s what the experts wanted.” Across the small towns of America, most people didn’t trust the order. People were torn between keeping their hard-earned wealth, and obeying the government. Those that did turn in their gold were paid the official price for it, which was 20.66 USD per ounce. As of this writing, the price of one ounce of gold trades for 1,264.59 USD.
With great fanfare Roosevelt ordered a new bullion depository, that would hold the mountain of gold the U.S. government was confiscating from those that owned it. By 1936, the gold bullion depository at Fort Knox was completed. By January of 1937, gold began to flow into it. The greatest theft of individual wealth that had ever occurred was under way. Once people turned in their gold, the official price suddenly spiked to 35.00 USD an ounce. The money changers that heeded Warburg’s warning, and go out of the markets before it bottomed out, purchase gold at 20.66 per ounce, then shipped it to London, and were able to sell it back to the government for nearly double the amount it was purchased for. As this financial fraud continued, the average American who had turned their gold in began to starve.
Executive Order 6102 was a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5th, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This order forbade the hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates within the continental United States. The effect of the order, in conjunction with the statute under which it was issued, was to criminalize the possession of monetary gold by any individual, partnership, association or corporation.
The stated reason for the order was that hard times had caused, “hoarding” of gold, stalling economic growth and making the depression worse,” according to a New York Times article released on April 6th, 1933. The article headline read, “Hoarding of Gold“, “The Executive Order issued by the President yesterday amplifies, and particularizes his earlier warnings against hoarding. On March 6, taking advantage of a wartime statute that had not been repealed, he issued Presidential Proclamation 2039 that forbade the hoarding ‘of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency,’ under penalty of $10,000 and/or up to five to ten years imprisonment.”
The rationale behind the order was to remove the constraint on the Federal Reserve, which prevented it from increasing the money supply during the depression. The Federal Reserve Act had required 40% gold backing of Federal Reserve Notes issued. By the late 1920s, the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit that could be backed by the gold in its possession. If gold could not be legally owned, then it could not be legally redeemed. If it could not be legally redeemed, then it could not constrain the central bank.
Executive Order 6102 required all persons to deliver on or before May 1st, 1933, all gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates owned by them. That gold was to be turned over to the Federal Reserve, in exchange for $20.67 per troy ounce.
Fort Knox, Kentucky.
When the gold began arriving at Fort Knox on January 13th, 1937, there was unprecedented security, thousands of official watched its arrival on a nine car train from Philadelphia. The train was guarded by armed soldiers, postal inspectors, secret service, and guards from the U.S. mint. In reality it was nothing more than great theater. America’s gold supply was supposed to be stored at Fort Knox, but all that security would soon be breached by the government itself.
At the end of World War II, Fort Knox vaults contained more than 700 million ounces of gold, about 70% of the gold in the world. How much gold remains at Fort Knox today? Despite the fact that federal law requires an annual physical audit of all the gold held at Fort Knox, the U.S. treasury consistently refuses to conduct one. The truth is there has been no reliable audit of the gold held at Fort Knox since President Eisenhower ordered one in 1953.
Where has all that gold gone? It is thought that the gold was sold off to European interests at 35.00 an ounce. This was done at a time when it was illegal for Americans to purchase any of the gold stored at Fort Knox. In the late 1970’s, the family of the Firestone Corporation set up a string of dummy corporations in a scheme to purchase the Fort Knox gold, and store it in Swiss banks. The Firestones were unsuccessful, and ended up being prosecuted.
By 1971, the nations gold that had been held at Fort Knox was secretly removed, and taken to London. Once all of the gold was gone from Fort Knox, President Nixon repealed President Roosevelt’s Gold Act, making it once again permissible for Americans to purchase gold. As a result, gold prices immediately soared. Nine years later, gold prices reached 880.00 USD per ounce, 25 times higher than the value of the gold that had been stored at Fort Knox.
The largest fortune in the history of the world was stolen, with not one government official blowing a whistle on the scheme. How did looting of Fort Knox finally become public knowledge? An article in a New York periodical in 1974, charged the Rockefeller family for manipulating the federal reserve to sell off Fort Knox gold at bargain prices to anonymous European speculators. Three days later the anonymous source of the story, Louise Boyer mysteriously fell to her death from the 10thfloor of her apartment in New York. How did Ms. Boyer gain knowledge about the greatest crime ever perpetrated against the American people? Boyer was the long time personal secretary of Nelson Rockefeller.
For the next fourteen years, Ed Durell, a wealthy Ohio industrialist devoted himself to learn about what happened to the gold of Fort Knox. Durrell went on a one-man campaign. He sent thousands of letters to government officials, demanding to know what gold remained at Fort Knox. Edith Roosevelt, the grand-daughter of President Roosevelt wrote, “Allegations of missing gold from our Fort Knox vaults are being widely discussed in European financial circles. But what is puzzling is that the Administration is not hastening to demonstrate conclusively that there is no cause for concern over our gold treasure, if indeed it is in a position to do so.”
Durrell never accomplished his primary goal, which was for the government to perform a full audit of the gold reserve at Fort Knox. The U.S. government could do away with all of the speculation by auditing the Fort Knox gold in the public light. Regardless, the government has chosen not to do so. This implies the government is fearful to discover what such an audit would reveal. When Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, his conservative friends urged him to study the feasibility of returning to a gold standard, as the only way to curb government spending. Reagan appointed a Gold Commission to study the situation, who was to report to congress. In 1982, the Gold Commission reported back to Reagan a shocking revelation concerning the gold. Texas Rep. Ron Paul, suggested America’s reserves were not as robust as officials were claiming, and has called for an independent audit of the U.S. gold held at Fort Knox, and other storage facilities. Paul is known for his fierce opposition to virtually everything the Federal Reserve stands for. “It’d be nice for the American people to know whether or not the gold is there,” Paul told Fox Business Network. And if there is any gold at Fort Knox, Paul said, the public should know whether any of it has been obligated. Most believe there is no gold at Fort Know. The gold that was stolen from the American people, and which was said to be stored at Fort Knox has most likely been transferred to the Federal Reserve.
Children unable to fend for themselves are the casualties of the banker’s war profits.
After WWII, the world was divided into two economic camps. Communism on the one hand, versus monopoly capitalism on the other. Both sides were set to fight it out in a perpetual, and highly profitable arms race. During this period, it would finally be time for the central bankers to embark on their three-step plan to centralize the economic system of the entire world, and finally bring about their global government, and their new world order.
A worldwide central bank domination of national economies.
Centralize regional economies through organizations such as the European Monetary Union, and regional trade unions like NAFTA.
Centralize the world economy through a World Central Bank, and do away with all international tariffs and treaties like GATT.
Step One was completed long ago. Step two and three are well into the advanced stage of completion. The largest holder of gold today is the International Monetary Fund. The IMF, and other centralized banks control more than two-thirds of the world gold supply. This gives the bankers the ability to manipulate the world’s gold supply, and valuation.
The stage was set for a new world war. A war that would pile up debt like the world had never seen before. The war spending of WWII would be thirty times higher than the war spending of World War I. The American taxpayer who were bilked of their wealth paid 55% of the total allied expense of the war. Every nation involved in World War II greatly multiplied their debt. In the U.S., federal debt went from 43 billion in 1940, up to 257 billion in 1950, an increase of 598%. Between 1940 and 1950, Japanese debt swelled 1348%, French debt grew 583%, Canadian debt soared 417%.
XXVI. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank
The IMF, and the World Bank were created at the Bretton Woods conference in 1944.
After World War I, under the guise of peace making, international bankers devised a plan to consolidate power even further. Claiming only an international government would stem the tide of world wars the bankers pushed for a world government that stood on three legs. A central bank to be called the Bank of International Settlements. A world judiciary to be called the World Court located in The Hague of the Netherlands, and a world executive, and legislative body called the League of Nations. President Clinton’s mentor Georgetown Historian, Carroll Quigley, wrote in his 1966 book, Tragedy and Hope, “The powers of financial capitalism had a far-reaching plan, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control, in private hands, able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world, acting in concert by secret agreements arrived at in frequent meetings, and conferences. The apex of the system was to be the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland, a private bank owned, and controlled by the world’s central banks which were themselves private corporations. Each central bank sought to dominate its government by its ability to control treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business world.”
Despite intense pressure from the international bankers, and the press they controlled, a handful of senators, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, kept the U.S. out of these schemes. Without U.S. participation the system was doomed. Incredibly, even though the U.S. rejected the world central bank, the New York Federal Reserve ignored its government and arrogantly sent representatives to Switzerland to participate in the central banker’s meetings, right up until 1994, when the U.S. was finally and officially dragged into it.
The bankers resorted to the old formula, another war to wear down the resistance to one world government, while reaping hefty profits. To this end, Wall Street helped resurrect Germany, through the Thisen banks that were closely connected to the Harriman interest in New York, just as the Chase Bank had assisted in the financing of the Bolshevik Revolution during World War I. Chase Bank was controlled by the Rockefeller family. Subsequently, it was merged with Warburg’s Manhattan Bank to form the Chase-Manhattan Bank. Then Chase-Manhattan merged with Chemical Bank of New York, making it the largest Wall Street bank during its time. Their strategy was working, even before World War II was over. A world government was on track.
In 1944, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank were approved with full U.S. participation. The Second League of Nations, renamed the United Nations was approved in 1945. Soon a new international court system was functioning. All effective opposition to these newly formed organizations prior to the war, subsequently evaporated during the war. These organizations were repeating on a world scale, what the National Banking Act of 1864, and the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 had established in the U.S. They created a banking cartel composed of all the world’s central banks, which gradually assumed the power to dictate credit policies to the banks of all the nations.
Just as the Federal Reserve Act authorized the creation of a new national fiat currency called federal reserve notes, the International Monetary Fund has been given the authority to issue a world fiat money called special drawing rights. The IMF created an excess of 30 billion dollars of special drawing rights. Member nations have been pressured to make their currency fully exchangeable for SDR’s.
In 1968, congress approved laws authorizing the Fed to accept SDR’s as reserves in the U.S., and to issue federal reserve notes in exchange for SDR’s. This meant in the U.S. SDR’s are already a part of the nation’s lawful money. SDR’s are partially backed by gold as well, and with two-thirds of all the world’s gold in the hands of the international bankers, the money changers can go about structuring the world’s economic future in any way they deem most profitable. Just like the Fed is controlled by its board of governors, the IMF is also controlled by its board of governors, which are either the heads of the difference central banks or the heads of the various national treasury departments dominated by their central banks.
Voting power in the IMF gives the U.S. Federal Reserve, and England’s Bank of England effective control. Just as the Fed controls the amount of money in the U.S., the BIS, IMF and the World Bank control the money supply for the world. So, the repetition of the old goldsmith’s fraud, replicated on the national scale, with central banks like the Fed, and on the international scale, by the three arms of the international central bank. Regulation put into effect in 1988, by the BIS, required the world bankers to raise their capital to 8% reserve of liability by 1992. This increase of capital requirement put an upper limit to the fractional reserve lending practices similar to the way cash reserve requirements do. What does this regulation that was made in a Swiss city mean to the world? It means that banks cannot loan more, and more money to buy more, and more time before the next depression, as a maximum loan ratio is now set. It means those nations with the lowest bank reserves in their systems have already felt the terrible effect of this monetary contraction as their banks scramble to raise money to increase their reserves to 8%. To raise money, nations had to sell stocks, which depressed those nation’s stock markets, and initiated depressions in those countries.
In 1988, Japan had one of the lowest capital reserve requirements, and was the most effected by the regulation, and suffered a financial crash that began almost immediately. This requirement wiped out nearly 50% of the value of its stock market since 1990, and 60% of the value of its commercial real estate. The Bank of Japan responded by lowering its interest rate to one half of one percent, practically giving away money to resurrect the economy. Regardless, the depression still worsened.
Due to the 20-billion-dollar bailout by the U.S. to Mexico, the financial collapse of that nation was already felt in the U.S. Despite the bailout, the economy continues to be a disaster, as one huge debt is rolled over, while new loans are being created merely to cover the interests Mexico must pay on the old loans. In the south of Mexico every spare peso had been siphoned out of the nation to make those interest payments. It’s important to note that radical power exchanges are taking place, as nations become subservient to a super powerful world central bank, controlled by a handful of the world’s richest bankers.
As the IMF creates more, and more SDR’s by the stroke of a pen on IMF ledgers, more, and more nations borrow to pay the interest on their mounting debt. Eventually, nations fall under complete control of the faceless bureaucrats of the world central bank. As the world-wide depression worsen and spreads, this gives the world banks the power of economic life, and death of a nations people, as it alone decides what nations are permitted to receive further loans of the SDR’s, and which nations will not.
Despite the World Bank’s claim of working to end the world of poverty, the bank itself is the root cause of economic global depression, economic instability, and starvation.
Regardless of the rhetoric about development, and alleviation of poverty, the result is a steady transfer of wealth from debtor nations to the central banks, which control the IMF, and the World Bank. Just as in the wars these bankers start, and finance, the victim’s of the international bankers are the children of this world. The World Bank uses the motto: Ending poverty and sharing prosperity.
In 1992, third world debtor nations, which borrowed from the World Bank, paid 198 million dollars more to the central bank of the developed nations, for world bank funded purposes, than they received from the world bank. All this increased these nations permanent debt in exchange for temporary relief from poverty, which in reality is caused from prior borrowing. Payments also greatly exceed the amount of new loans. By 1992, Africa’s external debt reached 290 billion dollars, 2.5 times greater than in 1980 resulting in skyrocketing infant mortality rates, unemployment, deterioration of schools, housing, and the general health of the nation’s people.
The entire world is now facing the same suffering that had destroyed third world nation’s, as well as Japan’s economy. The only ones that benefit from these arrangements are the international bankers who are responsible for all of this suffering. A prominent Brazilian politician stated, “The third world war has already started. It is a silent war. Not, for that reason, and less sinister. The war is tearing down Brazil, Latin America, and practically all the Third World. Instead of soldiers dying, there are children. It is a war over the Third World debt, one which has as its main weapon, interest, a weapon deadlier than the atom bomb, more shattering than a laser beam.”
Starvation is the result of the IMF, and World Bank’s policy toward third world nations.
It would be absurd to ignore the pivotal role played by influential families such as the Rothschild’s, Warburg’s, Schiff’s, Morgan’s and Rockefeller’s. Central banks, and large commercial banks are up to three centuries old, and deeply entrenched in the economic struggle of the people of most nations.
Years ago, the question of ownership was important but no longer. For example, both the Bank of England, and the Bank of France were nationalized after World War II, and nothing changed. These banks endure, and continue to grow, protected by laws, politicians on the take, and the media that is owned and controlled by them. These people, and their offspring remain untouched by the changing of generations. Three centuries falsely give an aura of respectability to the sixth generation, raised in a system not to be questioned, as they front countless philanthropic organizations, which are cash cows themselves.
To focus attention today on individuals or families, or to attempt to sort out the current holders of power serves little useful purpose, and is a distraction from what would cure the problems of perpetual debt. The corrupt banking system that has been used to consolidate vast wealth into fewer, and fewer hands remains all of the nation’s of the world’s economic problems. Change the names of the main players, the problem will neither go away, nor even miss a beat. Likewise, of the hordes of bureaucrats working in the world bank, central banks, and international banks, only a tiny fraction have any idea of what’s really going on. Would they even be concerned to discover that their work contributes to the impoverishment, and gradual enslavement of mankind to a few incredibly rich plutocrats?
There is no use in emphasizing the role of individuals anymore. The problem transcends the spectrum of the political right and left. Communism, socialism, as well as monopoly capitalism, are all tools of the money changers. Today, they profit from either side of a political spectrum. The big government welfare state of the left-wing, versus the neo-conservative laissez-faire capitalists who want big government out of their lives are nearly entirely controlled by the bankers. Whether a boom economy, or a world collapse, the bankers win.
Monetary reform is the most important political issue facing the world today. With that clarified, lets proceed to the conclusion of this essay in the spirit that Lincoln declared. “With malice towards none, with charity towards all.”
The most important monetary questions that need to be addressed today are:
What’s going on with the world’s economy today?
Why is the U.S, the wealthiest nation in the world buried in massive debt?
Why can’t politicians bring the debt crisis under control?
Why are Americans over their heads in debt? Because they are laboring under a debt money system that is designed, and controlled by private bankers to keep them in that state. Some will argue that the federal reserve system is a quasi governmental agency, but the president appoints only two of the seven members of the federal reserve board of governors every four years, and he appoints them to fourteen year terms, far longer than his own. The senate confirms those appointments, but the president wouldn’t dare appoint anyone to that board if Wall Street did not approve. This does not preclude the possibility that some honorable men may be appointed to the board of governors, but the fact is that the fed is specifically designed to operate independently of our government, as are all central banks. Some argue that the Fed promotes monetary stability. Eddie George, the head of the Bank of England, claimed that monetary stability was the most important role of a central bank. If this is factual, then the Feds record of stabilizing the economy shows it to be a miserable failure. Within the first twenty-five years of its existence, the Federal Reserve Bank caused three major economic down cycles, including, The Great Depression, and for the last thirty years has shepherded America’s economy into a period of unprecedented inflation.
Nobel prize-winning economist Milton Friedman stated, “The stock of money, prices and output was decidedly more unstable after the establishment of the Reserve System than before. The most dramatic period of instability in output was, of course, the period between the two wars, which includes the severe monetary contractions of 1920-21, 1929-33, and 1937-38. No other 20-year period in American history contains as many as three such severe contractions. This evidence persuades me that at least a third of the price rise during, and just after World War I, is attributable to the establishment of the Federal Reserve System, and that the severity of each of the major contractions is directly attributable to acts of commission, and omission by the Reserve authorities. Any system which gives so much power, and so much discretion to a few men, so that mistakes, excusable or not, can have such far-reaching effects, is a bad system. It is a bad system to believers in freedom just because it gives a few men such power without any effective check by the body politic, this is the key political argument against an independent central bank. To paraphrase Clemenceau, money is much too serious a matter to be left to the central bankers.”
We must learn from our history before it is too late. Why can’t politicians control the federal debt? Because all money in America is created out of debt. America’s economy is a debt money system. America’s money is initially created by the purchase of U.S. bonds. The public buys those bonds. The banks buy those bonds, foreigners buy them, and when the Fed wants to create more money in the system, it buys bonds, but pays for them with a simple book-keeping entry which it creates out of nothing. Then this new money, created by the Fed is multiplied by a factor of ten, by the banks, due to the fractional reserve principle. Although the banks don’t create currency, they do create check book money, or deposits by making new loans. They even invest some of this created money. Over 1 trillion dollars of this privately created money has been used to purchase U.S. bonds on the open market, which provides the banks with roughly 50 billion dollars in interest, risk free, each year, less the interest they pay to some depositors. In this way, through fractional reserve lending, banks create over 90% of the money, and therefore cause over 90% of our inflation. What should we do about all this?
There is a way to fix the problem fairly easily, speedily, and without any serious financial problems. America can get completely out of debt in one to two years by simply paying off U.S. bonds with debt free U.S. notes, like that that Lincoln issued. Of course, that by itself would create tremendous inflation since our currency is multiplied by the fractional reserve banking system. To keep the money supply stable, and avoid inflation, and deflation as the debt is retired, the treasury would purchase its bonds on the open market with U.S. notes. The reserve requirements of a local bank would be proportionally raised, so the amount of money in circulation remains constant. As those holding bonds are paid off in U.S. notes, they would also deposit that money, thus making available the currency needed by the banks to increase their reserves. Once all the U.S. bonds are replaced with U.S. notes, banks will be at 100% reserve banking instead of the fractional reserve system currently in use. From this point on the former Fed buildings will only be needed as a central clearing house for checks, and as vaults for U.S. notes. The federal reserve act will no longer be necessary and should therefore be repealed. Monetary power would then be transferred back to the treasury department. There would be no further creation, and contraction of money by banks. This is the only way America’s national debt could be paid off. The Fed, and fractional reserve banking should then be abolished without national bankruptcy, financial collapse, inflation or deflation, or any significant change in the way the average American goes about his business. To the average person, the primary difference would be that for the first time since the Federal Reserve Act was passed, taxes would begin to go down.
The following are the main provisions of a monetary reform act, which needs to be passed by congress.
Pay off the debt with debt free U.S. notes. As Thomas Edison put it, “If the U.S. can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill.” They both rest purely on the faith, and credit of the United States government. This amounts to a simple substitution of one type of government obligation for another. One bears interest, the other doesn’t. Federal reserve notes could be used for this purpose, and should not be printed after the Fed is abolished.
Abolish Fractional Reserve Banking. As the debt is paid off, the reserve requirements of all banks, and financial institutions could be raised proportionally, to absorb the new U.S. notes, which would be deposited and become the banks increased reserves. Towards the end of the first year of the transition period, the remaining liabilities of financial institutions would be assumed or acquired by the U.S. government. In other words, national financial debt would be paid off with debt free U.S. notes so as to keep the total money supply stable. Shortly, all of the national debt would be paid, and Americans would start enjoying the benefits of full reserve banking.
Repeal, The Federal Reserve Act of 1913, and The National Banking Act of 1864. These acts delegate the money power to a private banking monopoly. They must be repealed, and the money power handed back to the Department of Treasury where they were under President Abraham Lincoln. No banker, or anyone affiliated with financial institutions should be allowed to regulate banking. After initiating the first two reforms, these acts would serve no useful purpose anyway, since they relate to a fractional reserve banking system.
Withdraw the U.S. from the IMF, the BIS, and The World Bank. These institutions like the federal reserve, are designed to further centralize the power of the international bankers over the world’s economy, and the U.S. must withdraw from them. Their functions such as currency exchange could be accomplished nationally, or in new organizations limited to those kind of exchanges.
A monetary reform act like the one presented above would guarantee that the amount of money in circulation would remain stable, resulting in neither inflation, nor deflation.
For the last three decades, the Fed has doubled the American money supply every ten years. That fact, and fractional reserve banking are the real causes of inflation, and the reduction in our buying power, a hidden tax. These and other taxes are the real reasons both parents have to work just to get by. The money supply should increase slowly to keep prices stable, roughly in proportion to population growth, about 3% per year. Not at the whim of a group of bankers meeting in secret. In fact, all future decisions on how much money will be in the American economy must be made based on statistics of population growth and the price level index.
The new monetary regulators and the Treasury Department, perhaps called the Monetary Committee, would have absolutely no discretion in this matter except in time of declared war. This would ensure a steady stable money growth of roughly 3% per year, resulting in stable prices, and no sharp changes in the money supply. To make certain the process is completely open, and transparent, all deliberations should be public, not secretive, as meetings of the Feds board of governors are today.
The two major causes of economic instability are The Fed, and fractional reserve banking, along with the creation of the Bank of International Settlements. Most importantly, the danger of a severe depression would be eliminated. Milton Friedman discusses the single cause of severe economic depressions, “I know of no severe depression, in any country or any time, that was not accompanied by a sharp decline in the stock of money, and equally of no sharp decline in the stock of money that was not accompanied by a severe depression.”
Issuing our own currency is not a radical solution. It has been advocated by presidents Jefferson, Madison, Jackson, Van Buren and Lincoln, and it’s been used at different times throughout Europe as well. Perhaps the best example is one of the small islands off the coast of France, and the English Channel, known as Guernsey. This island has been using debt free money issued to pay for large building projects for nearly 200 years. Guernsey is one of the most successful examples of how well a debt free money system can work.
In 1815 a committee was appointed to investigate how best to finance a new market. The impoverished Guernsey could not afford more taxes, so the states founders decided to try a revolutionary idea. Issue their own paper money, which was colorful paper notes, backed by nothing. The people of the island agreed to accept them, and trade with them. To be sure those notes were circulated widely, they were declared to be good for the payment of taxes. This was exactly what America had done before the American revolution. Debt free currency is still in use today in Guernsey.
What if America followed Guernsey’s example? How would the bankers react to such reforms? Certainly the international banker’s cartel would oppose reforms that do away with their control of America’s economy, as they have in the past. Even so, congress has the constitutional authority, and responsibility to authorize the issuance of debt free money, and to reform the banking laws they themselves ill-advisedly enacted. Undoubtedly the bankers will claim that issuing debt free money will cause severe inflation or make other dire predictions, but remember it is fractional reserve banking that is the real cause of over 90% of all inflation, not whether debt free U.S. notes are used to pay for government deficits. In the current system, any spending excesses on the part of congress are turned into more debt bonds, and the 10% purchased by The Fed, are then multiplied many times over by the bankers, causing over 90% of all inflation. The world’s fractional reserve, and debt based banking system is the problem.
Americans are starting to figure this out. Today there over 3200 cities, and counties that have endorsed the proposal of a non-profit organization called Sovereignty. The Sovereignty movement calls for congress to authorize the Secretary of State to issue 90 billion dollars per year in U.S. notes. Not Federal Reserve notes, nor debt based bonds, to loan money interest free to cities, counties, and school districts for needed capital improvement. Remarkably, the Community Bankers Association of Illinois, representing 515 member banks, has endorsed this Sovereignty proposal.
What do the international bankers have in store for the world? Remember the infamous words of David Rockefeller, the chairman of the one-time largest Wall Street bank Chase-Manhattan, “We are on the verge of a global transformation. All we need is the right major crisis and the nation will accept the New World Order.” Crisis is needed to fulfill their plan.
The American middle-class has become an endangered species. Cheaper labor from China, and other nations strapped with debt caused by international bankers compete with American labor. Money is being consolidated into fewer, and fewer hands as never before seen in the history of America, or the world. Without reform the American middle class will soon be extinct, leaving only the very rich few, and the impoverished poor, as has already occurred in most of the world. America has been warned of this by congressmen, presidents, industrialist and economists, down through the years.
Pope Leo XIII put it this way, “On the one side there is the party which holds the power because it holds the wealth; which has in its grasp all labor and all trade; which manipulates for its own benefit and its own purposes all the sources of supply, and which is powerfully represented in the councils of State itself. On the other side there is the needy and powerless multitude, sore and suffering. Rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by the Church, is nevertheless under a different form but with the same guilt, still practice by avaricious and grasping men, so that a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon the masses of the poor yoke little better than slavery itself.”
Finally, what can you do to protect you families during times of depression?
Get out of debt, even if it means lowering your standard of living.
Liquidate wealth. In a worse case scenario, consider placing your wealth into silver coin. Pre-1965 silver coins are 90% silver. During a depression a single silver dollar may be able to buy groceries for an entire week for one single family.
Resist a gold standard, as two-thirds of the world’s gold wealth is concentrated in the World Bank.
Be aware of any plan for an international currency, which is nothing more than the international bankers Trojan Horse.
Educate members of congress. It only takes a few educated congressional members to make the other members pay attention. Most politicians don’t understand the system, and the ones that do are so tightly woven to the thread of the banking industry that they ignore it, not realizing the gravity of their neglect.
Contact your representatives, and tell them to abolish the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, do away with fractional reserve debt based banking, and for the U.S. to return to a silver backed monetary standard.
J.D. Rockefeller, Founder of the National Education Association said, “I don’t want a nation of thinkers, I want a nation of workers.”
Contact your representatives, and demand the abolishment of the the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, and the fractional reserve debt based economic system that has played a significant role in the destruction of the American dream.
© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Everything Is Sculpture: Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi, born Isamu Gilmour, is an American sculptor who spent more than sixty years creating abstract works in stone, based on organic, and geometric forms.
Noguchi’s Japanese father, Yone, was a rising poet living on Manhattan’s Riverside Drive. He met Noguchi’s American mother, Leonie Gilmour, through a classified ad he took out for freelance editorial work in 1901. Yone returned to Japan. He appeared to have little regret at leaving a six-month-pregnant woman behind.
Noguchi was born in 1904, in the city of Los Angeles to Leonie Gilmour, an Irish-American writer and teacher, and Yone Noguchi, a Japanese poet. Noguchi’s parents met when his mother was hired to assist his father with English. By 1913, Noguchi’s father remarried, and started a new life, distancing himself from his son.
Noguchi’s mother moved to Japan, where the young Noguchi attended Japanese and Jesuit schools. Noguchi lived in Tokyo, Omori and Chigasaki. While living in Japan, Noguchi gained an appreciation for its landscape, architecture, and craftsmanship. At the age of thirteen, Noguchi’s mother sent him to a boarding school, Interlaken School located in Rolling Prairie, Indiana.
Upon graduating high school in Indiana, Noguchi spent a summer in Connecticut tutoring the son of sculptor Gutzon Borglum. Although Noguchi received training from the Borglum, who would become the Mount Rushmore sculptor, it was said that Noguchi was talentless.
Noguchi entered Columbia University as a pre-med student in 1922. His mother moved to New York in 1924, and encouraged her son to study sculpture at the Leonardo da Vinci School of Art. While in Manhattan Noguchi became acquainted with the work of the Surrealists, and with contemporary abstract sculpture. By 1927, these interests led him to Paris on a Guggenheim Fellowship, where he worked with modernist sculptor, Constantin Brancusi. Noguchi left Columbia and focused on his art full-time. This is when Noguchi began using his father’s name. Before long, Noguchi’s academic work was soon shown in exhibitions at the da Vinci School, the National Academy of Design, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
While in Paris, Noguchi worked as an assistant to Constantin Brancusi, whose New York gallery exhibition the previous year had been extremely influential for the young artist. While teaching Noguchi methods of direct carving in wood and stone, Brancusi communicated to Noguchi his aesthetic and relationship to his materials. From Brancusi, Noguchi became interested in the idea of leaving the marks of his tools on his sculpture to signify an ongoing connection between sculptor and material. However, after leaving Brancusi’s studio, Noguchi began creating his own sculptures, many of which initially echoed the form, themes and materials of his mentor.
Noguchi’s sculptures began as simple geometric shapes, but he soon moved toward more organic forms, sometimes merging the two. While in Paris, Noguchi also became part of the Bohemian community, meeting artists such as Alexander Calder, Stuart Davis and Jules Pascin.
Noguchi’s fellowship expired in 1929. He returned to New York, and had his first solo exhibition at the Eugene Schoen Gallery. His work was met with positive reviews, despite a lack of sales. To make money, Noguchi created portrait busts including well-known artists such as George Gershwin, Martha Graham, and Buckminster Fuller. During this time, he traveled to Paris, Beijing and Japan. In Kyoto, Noguchi first saw the Japanese pottery, and Zen gardens that would influence much of his work.
Noguchi found little acceptance for his abstract sculptures. While his portrait work increased his popularity, and earned Noguchi a living, he felt it was stifling, and in the thirties he moved to Mexico City. In Mexico City, Noguchi worked on a large three-dimensional mural with the painter Diego Rivera. Although not his own project, the mural was closer in scale to the large pieces he longed to create. Noguchi’s work in Mexico City won him the opportunity to create the entrance to the Associated Press building in New York. Thereafter, Noguchi was able to work on a large scale projects of his own.
“To limit yourself to a particular style may make you an expert of that particular viewpoint or school, but I do not wish to belong to any school,” he said. “I am always learning, always discovering.”
Internment Camp and WWII
“To be hybrid anticipates the future. This is America, the nation of all nationalities.” Noguchi added, “For us to fall into the Fascist line of race bigotry is to defeat our unique personality and strength.”
In the winter of 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. This order permitted the U.S. military to round up Japanese-Americans in California, Oregon and Washington State, and to move them inland into internment camps.
At that time Noguchi was 37, and living in New York. He was exempt from Roosevelt’s order, yet he went anyway. By then, Noguchi had made a name for himself with large-scale works such as that of 50 Rockefeller Plaza. Even so, the attack of the Japanese on Pearl Harbor made him, as he writes in his autobiography, not just American but a second-generation Japanese immigrant. Noguchi somehow believed that by opting for internment he could improve the standing of Japanese-Americans, and demonstrate their commitment to the American war effort. Noguchi was sent to the Poston War Relocation Center. This would be the largest internment camp in the U.S., located near the Arizona-California border.
Nothing came of his efforts, and though he tried to leave to continue his advocacy outside the camp, it took months to obtain permission. Despite his voluntary internment, Noguchi had to complete a loyalty questionnaire, quizzing him about his views of Japan’s emperor, his language abilities, his membership in Japanese organizations and how many Caucasian references could vouch for his patriotism. Noguchi created few works during the seven months he was interned.
In 1943 Noguchi was back in New York, where his art exploded into new forms with angrier overtones. “This Tortured Earth,” is a wall-mounted square of scarred and divot-marked bronze, and hi, The World Is a Foxhole, features a ball and a small sail in precarious balance. Noguchi shifted into the biotic forms that would later characterize his most famous work.
Certain matters haunted Noguchi throughout life. Due to his father’s fame, Noguchi’s birth in 1904 resulted in a newspaper headline in Los Angeles. At that time, Leonie was living in a tent town on the outskirts of the city. The article included, “Yone Noguchi’s Babe Pride of Hospital. White Wife of Author Presents Husband With Son.” The article foretold what Noguchi would contend with for the rest of his life; the public recognition that he would retain mixed identities. “After all, for one with a background like myself the question of identity is very uncertain,” Noguchi said in 1988, the year of his death.
After World War II, Noguchi returned to Japan. He continued to create sculptures, and was given the opportunity to work on larger site-specific pieces. Among these were gardens and fountains which combined his interests in sculpture and architecture. While his proposal for the Hiroshima Monument was not accepted, his involvement in the cultural exchange between Japan and America was important. For Noguchi, Japan was both his past and his future, providing him with a history of craftsmanship as well as aesthetic inspiration. Noguchi would return to Japan constantly throughout the remainder of his life to study, create, and live.
Noguchi’s mother was his strongest influence. His mother is considered a fascinating, yet tragic figure, who haunted Noguchi’s expression. “I think I’m the product of my mother’s imagination,” he once said. Leonie was a graduate of what became known as the Ethical Culture School, which stressed both “manual and academic training.” She followed this with a scholarship to Bryn Mawr College, and studies at the Sorbonne. “She kept hoping I would eventually become an artist,” Noguchi said. She got her wish however, dying of pneumonia in 1933 at age 59, she was never able to see her son’s artistic promise fulfilled.
Brancusi taught Noguchi, “You’re as good as you ever will be at the moment. That which you do is the thing.” Some of Noguchi’s greatest output came from collaborations, including dance sets for Martha Graham, garden designs for architects, and eventually his coffee table for Herman Miller, and his Akari light sculptures, paper lanterns now universally copied. Noguchi’s famous table design came about when it was used to illustrate an article written by George Nelson on, “How to Make a Table.” This table would become Noguchi’s famous coffee table, introduced in 1947, and reissued in 1984.
Other notable commissions include the gardens for the UNESCO Building in Paris, five fountains for the Supreme Court Building in Tokyo, and a large mural for the Abelardo Rodriguez Market in Mexico City.
Gold Medal, American Institute of Arts and Letters, 1977
Brandeis Creative Arts Award, 1966
New York Architectural League Gold Medal, 1965
First Prize (Logan Medal), 63rd Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture, Art Institute of Chicago, 1959
Guggenheim Memorial Fund Fellowship, 1927
“It’s only in art that it was ever possible for me to find any identity at all.”
Noguchi died in December of 1988 at the age of 84, after a career that spanned more than six decades.
Even in death, Noguchi has gardens in Paris, Jerusalem, and New York, and outdoor sculptures and environments in seventeen American cities. The great body of work that he leaves behind is a testament to the ties he forged between East and West.
Rather hope to be remembered, not for any particular body of work, but it is said that he hoped to be remembered for contributing “something to an awareness of living.”
Walking in his museum garden with his friend Dore Ashton, Noguchi once said, “I have come to no conclusions, no beginnings, no endings.”
Noguchi’s objective, it is said was to create, and enhance public spaces, which established him as a critical figure in the worlds of post-war art, architecture and design.
To visit the museum
The Isamu Noguchi Garden Museum Japan
3519 Mure, Mure-cho, Takamatsu-city Kagawa, 761-0121, Japan
© 2017. All Rights Reserved.
Sessue Hayakawa: Hollywood’s Forgotten Leading Man
During Hollywood’s silent screen era Japanese screen star Sessue Hayakawa rivaled Douglas Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin and John Barrymore in popularity with film audiences. Today, a little known about the Japanese actor who starred in film after film for many years. During that time Hayakawa was one of the highest paid Hollywood stars, earning more than $5,000 a week. In 1915, that was the equivalent to $2 million a year. He did this through producing films with his own production company. Hayakawa was handsome and flamboyant. He was equally famous for throwing Hollywood’s most extravagant, and legendary parties.
Sessue Hayakawa was born on June 10th, 1889 in Chiba, Japan. The future matinee idol was the second eldest son of the provincial governor of Chiba. From early on Hayakawa was groomed for a career as a naval officer. But in 1907, at 17, he took a schoolmate’s dare to swim to the bottom of a lagoon and ruptured an eardrum. At the time he was studying at the Naval Academy in Etajima, but his imperfect health resulted in failing the navy’s rigorous physical. His father became depressed, humiliated and shamed. Consequently, the father-son relationship suffered.
It is held that the strained relationship between the Kintaro’s drove Hayakawa when he was 18-years-old to commit hara-kiri. Hayakawa entered a garden shed on his family property, locked his favorite dog outside, and spread a white sheet on the ground. Hayakawa stabbed himself in the abdomen more than 30 times. The dog’s barking alerted Hayakawa’s family, and his father smashed through the shed door with an axe in time to save his son’s life.
Hayakawa’s father decided that since he couldn’t become a naval officer, he would become a banker. Hayakawa was enrolled at the University of Chicago to study political economics. While at the university he would become the quarterback of the football team. He was once penalized for using jujitsu while tackling an opponent.
Hayakawa took a vacation in Los Angeles, and ended up going to The Japanese Playhouse in Little Tokyo. This experience led to him getting into acting and staging plays. That was when he first assumed the name Sessue Hayakawa, dropping the name Kintaro. One production Hayakawa staged was, The Typhoon. A movie producer named Thomas Ince saw the production, and offered to turn it into a silent movie using all of the original cast. But Hayakawa was to return to the University of Chicago, and to discourage Ince, asked for the absurd fee of $500 a week. Ince agreed to pay, and the film went into production in 1914. On May 1st of the same year The Typhoon was produced, Hayakawa met and married Tsuru Aoki, a Hollywood star in her own right who had descended from a family of performers. The Typhoon became a huge hit, turning Hayakawa into an overnight sensation. Hayakawa made two more films with Ince, The Wrath of the Gods with Aoki as co-star, and The Sacrifice, before signing with the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company which would later become Paramount Pictures.
In his second film for Paramount, The Cheat, directed by Cecil B. DeMille, Hayakawa played a Japanese art dealer who burned a brand on the shoulder of leading lady Fannie Mae. Hayakawa’s dashing good looks and acting style resulted in him becoming an instant matinee idol. By 1915 his salary soared to over $5,000 a week. By 1917 he built a castle on the corner of Franklin Avenue, and Argyle Street which was a Hollywood landmark until it was torn down in 1956.
Hayakawa made more than twenty films with Paramount, typecast as the exotic lover or villain forced to relinquish the heroine in the last act, that is, unless the heroine was his wife, Aoki. The titles of some of his films type casted Hayakawa, including The White Man’s Laws, Hidden Pearls, and The Call of the East. Hayakawa played a South Sea Islander in Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Bottle Imp. His wife appeared with him in Alien Souls, The Honorable Friend, The Soul of Sura Kan, Each to His Own Kind, and Hashimura Fog.
Many of Hollywood’s leading stars were Hayakawa’s friend. He is credited with launching the career of Rudolph Valentino. Hayakawa’s contract with Paramount expired in May, 1918. Even so, the studio asked him to star in, The Sheik. Hayakawa turned down the picture in favor of starting his own company. Valentino’s role in, The Sheik made him an overnight star.
Hollywood’s typecasting pushed Hayakawa to form his own production company. He borrowed $1 million from a former classmate at the University of Chicago, and in 1918, formed Hayworth Films with a studio on the corner of Sunset, and Hollywood Boulevard. Over the next three years he starred in, and produced twenty-three films, netting 2 million a year. Hayakawa controlled all aspects of production. He produced, starred in, and contributed to the design, writing, editing, and directing of each film. His films also influenced the way Americans viewed Asians.
Critics of the day hailed Hayakawa’s Zen-influenced acting style. Hayakawa sought to bring muga, or the “absence of doing,” to his performances, in direct contrast to the then-popular exaggerated poses and broad gestures.
In, The Jaguar’s Claws, which was filmed in the Mojave Desert, Hayakawa played a Mexican bandit. He hired 500 cowboys as extras. On the first night of filming, the extras got drunk, well into the next day. No work was being done. Hayakawa challenged the men to a fight. Two stepped forward, “The first one struck out at me. I seized his arm and sent him flying on his face along the rough ground. The second attempted to grapple, and I was forced to flip him over my head, and let him fall on his neck. The fall knocked him unconscious.” Hayakawa disarmed yet another cowboy. After that, the extras returned to work, amused by the way the “small man” manhandled the big bruising cowboys.
The 1919 production of, The Dragon Painter, starred Hayakawa’s wife. This film is considered Hayakawa’s best work from that era. The Dragon Painter was based on a 1906 novel by Mary McNeil Fenollosa who had lived in Japan with her husband. The Dragon Painter is the story of a painter who searches for a dragon princess he believes was stolen from him in another life. He eventually finds her but loses his desire to paint. The story was set in Japan but was filmed mostly in Yosemite Valley.
Hayakawa live during Hollywood’s heyday. His popularity rivaled that of Douglas Fairbanks, and John Barrymore. Hayakawa drove a gold-plated Pierce-Arrow, and entertained lavishly at his Hollywood castle, the scene of some of the film community’s wildest parties. Just before prohibition took effect in 1920 he bought a carload of booze. Hayakawa once claimed that he owed his social success to his liquor supply.
A bad business deal forced Hayakawa to leave Hollywood in 1921. The next 15 years Hayakawa performed in New York, France, England and Japan. In 1924 he made, The Great Prince Chan, and The Story of Su, in London. In 1925 he wrote a novel, The Bandit Prince, and turned it into a short play. In 1930 he performed in a one act play written especially for him, Samurai. Samurai was performed for the King and Queen of England. By this time, Hayakawa became extremely popular in France thanks to the prevailing French fascination with Asian culture. In 1930 Hayakawa returned to Japan and produced a Japanese-language stage version of The Three Musketeers. While in Japan, he adopted two girls and one boy.
Another Continent To Conquer
By the 1930s Hayakawa’s popularity began to wane due to the rise of talkies, movies with sound. There was also a nationwide growing anti-Japanese sentiment.
Hayakawa’s talking film debut came in 1931 in, Daughter Of The Dragon, starring opposite Anna May Wong.
In 1937 Hayakawa went to France to act in, Yoshiwara, and found himself trapped for the balance of the war by the German occupation. He made a few movies during those years, but supported himself mainly by selling watercolor paintings.
From 1937 until 1949, Hayakawa remained separated from his family. Humphrey Bogart’s production company tracked him down, and offered Hayakawa a role in Tokio Joe. Hayakawa followed, Tokio Joe, with, Three Came Home, before returning to France.
In 1949, no doubt due to hostilities toward the Japanese that remained after WWII, Hayakawa said, ”My one ambition is to play a hero.”
Hayakawa’s post-war screen persona remained fixed as the honorable villain, best exemplified in his role as Colonel Saito in, The Bridge On The River Kwai, which won the 1957 Academy Award for best picture. Hayakawa’s performance received a nomination for a supporting actor category. Hayakawa called this role the highlight of his career.
In 1960, Hayakawa starred in Swiss Family Robinson, an American adventure film starring John Mills, Dorothy McGuire, James MacArthur, Janet Munro, Tommy Kirk and Kevin Corcoran. The film told a tale of a shipwrecked family that had to build an island home. The film was loosely based on the 1812 novel Der Schweizerische Robinson, by Johann David Wyss. The film was directed by Ken Annakin and shot in Tobago and Pinewood Studios outside London. The film was a huge commercial success. Swiss Family Robinson was the first widescreen Disney film shot with Panavision lenses.
Hayakawa’s wife died in 1961. By then he had become a Zen priest, and returned to Japan. While in Japan he continued acting, appearing in, The Daydreamer, in 1966.
During his career, Hayakawa was an actor, producer, author, martial artist and an ordained Zen monk. He starred in over 80 films, and achieved stardom on three continents. Hayakawa was Paramount’s first choice for the leading role in, The Sheik, which launched Rudolph Valentino’s career in 1918. In 1957, he was nominated for an academy-award.
Hayakawa died on November 23rd, in 1973 from a blood clot in the brain complicated by pneumonia. He was survived by his adopted son Yukio, an engineer, and two daughters, Yoshiko, an actress, and Fujiko, a dancer. Hayakawa’s work lives on in various forms. Some of his later films, Geisha Boy, Tokio Joe, Three Came Home, and The Bridge On The River Kwai remain popular films. In 1989 a musical based on Hayakawa’s life, Sessue, played in Tokyo. In his autobiography, Zen Showed Me The Way, Hayakawa wrote, “All my life has been a journey. But my journey differs from the journeys of most men.”
© 2018. All Rights Reserved.
DEAD OCEANS 2050